Al-Ithaf in explaining the issues of I’tikaf

Throughout Islamic history, i’tikaaf has remained one of the jurisprudence issues that many of those i’tikaaf observe ask about the truth, its rulings, its conditions, its divisions, its time and its invalidities. Al-Bukhari and Muslim) explain the issues of this worship that the believer should not miss because of its great virtues and its great role in the reformation of hearts, the purification of souls, the return of man to his Lord and the participation in his worship.

It can be said that the renewal of questions on the issues of itikaf worship is due to many reasons, including the lack of books concerned with gathering the issues of this worship into one easy book that helps the Muslim to understand with ease the reality of etiquette, its pronunciation, conditions, divisions, time, invalidities, time of exit from and entering into it, and everything connected therewith His provisions, etiquette, virtues, issues, conditions and invalidities.

In this article we will try to give the reader a summary of the issues of i’tikaaf by relying on two books related to i’tikaf, the first:The case law of i’tikafBy Khalid bin Ali Al-Mushaiq, and the second:I’tikaaf in I’tikafThis is a short message by Abdullah bin Suleiman bin Abdullah Al-Shuaiman in which he, through fifteen short sections, touched on everything related to ethics from the terms, etiquette, issues, conditions and invalidities, and he was limited to the correct and most correct saying according to the scholars in all matters of itikaf, and it appears Abdullah bin Suleiman relied on a book in this letterThe case law of i’tikafBy Khalid bin Ali Al-Mushaikh[1].

I’tikaf concept

I’tikaf in the language of intention, the owner of Lisan Al Arab said in the article (Akf): His place, which is required, is linguistic in the sense of sticking to something and turning to it. The Almighty said: {And do not deal with them while you are devoted to the mosques} ie inhabitants. the mosque and its feet while I was menstruating. ”

As for the terminology, the jurists i’tikaaf defined as “to lock oneself in the mosque, especially with the intention,” and “the necessity of a mosque for obedience to God.” The definitions of the imams of the sects revolved around this meaning with the presence of some differences in the terms and conditions. In the mosque with fasting and the intention of seclusion. “And one of the definitions of the Malikis is that” a prominent Muslim must comply with a permissible mosque with sufficient fasting of intercourse and she predicts day and night or more to intentionally to worship, ”while the Shafi’is defined it as” staying in the mosque by a person with a specific intention, “and the Hanbalis defined it as” obligation. ” The mosque is to obey God in a specific and healthy way, even if it is distinct and pure from what is required to be washed. “

The rule of i’tikaaf

I’tikaaf worship is legal by authors and Sunnah, the consequences of the companions and consensus, this is the book. As for the evidence for the legitimacy of itikaf from the Prophetic Sunnah, they are numerous, including the hadith: “May God be pleased with both of them, on the authority of Abdullah bin Omar, he said: The Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, used to perform i’tikaaf at the end of Ramadan, “and a hadith:” May God be pleased with her, the wife of the Prophet, on the authority of Aisha, may God bless her and give him peace.He, peace and blessings of God, kept the itikaf for the last ten days of Ramadan until God took him, then his wives followed him.

There is no dispute that God, the Almighty, has prescribed for His servants a great wisdom represented in the return to God, the Most High and to be engaged with Him, and His fellowship with Him, alone with Him, remembering preoccupation with creation and being concerned with Him alone, Glory to Him, is a search that becomes His memory, love, and turn to Him in the place of the heart’s worries and dangers..etc.

In this vein, we find that Khalid bin Ali Al-Mushaiq speaks of the wisdom of itikaf, and he says in his book:The case law of i’tikafI’tikaf is one of the acts of worship that “by which the heart is revived and the soul is cleansed, and the servant is directed to goodness and benevolence, by which he is reminded of the doctrine of reward and punishment, and by which he is held accountable. for his deeds and duties. ”

Sections of i’tikaf

According to the ruling, I’tikaf is divided into two parts, the first: Elderly I’tikafIbn Mundhir, may God have mercy on him, said: “And they unanimously agreed that i’tikaaf is a Sunnah that is not obligatory for the people, unless a person makes it obligatory on himself and he has to make a vow make.” The second is obligatory i’tikaaf. “Whoever promises to obey God, let him obey, and whoever promises to disobey, do not disobey him.” And according to the hadith of Ibn Omar, may God be pleased with him, “Umar, may God be pleased with him, the Prophet asked, may God’s prayers and peace be with him, he said: I have made a vow “During the pre-Islamic period that I would perform I’tikaf for a night in the mosque. I keep your vow.”

There is an important question in this section that may be asked by someone interested in knowing the terms of i’tikaaf, which is: Is it necessary to start i’tikaaf? In answer to this question, we say that Khalid bin Ali Al-Mushaiq stopped in his book.The case law of i’tikafWith this question and he said that there are two scholarly opinions about it, the first: that it is not compulsory to initiate it, which is the view of the majority of scholars, and the second: that it should be initiated in the sense that if he cuts it off, he should make it up, and that is the well-known view of the Malikis.

I have time

The scholars of Islam took care of the period for i’tikaaf, so they talked about the certain time for i’tikaaf and about the least and most time for i’tikaaf. The third is that it is at least ten days. As for the owners of the fourth saying, they said that the minimum period for i’tikaaf is a moment. It comes in “Al-Majmoo ‘”: The correct one determined by the public is that it is required to stay in the mosque, and that it is permissible for many of them and a little even an hour or so. a moment. ”

With regard to the longest period of itikaf, it seems that there is no restriction to it, unless it includes a legal prohibition, because of the general meaning of the Almighty’s saying: {And do not engage with them while attending mosques is not dedicated. }. There is no limit to it, but the Maliki believe that “the end of the delegate is a month, and it is not liked that it exceeds a month.”

The time to enter and leave the i’tikaaf is considered as one of the issues that the i’tikaaf needs to know about and be asked from time to time. Sunset on the evening of the twenty-first and with it the majority of scholars said, and the second is that after the morning prayer on the twenty-first, and this is a narration of Imam Ahmad and Al-Layth, and with that Al-Awza’i said, and Al-San’ani tended to.

As for the time of going out of i’tikaf, it seems that the scholars preferred that the person in i’tikaf should leave his i’tikaf when he went out after the Eid prayer. Ibrahim al-Nakh’i said: “They had earlier recommended to the one who was in the i’tikaaf to spend the night of al-Fitr in the mosque so that his morning would be from him to the Eid” and to connect worship with worship. Al-Awza’i said he goes out when the sun goes down on the last of the ten days, “because the ten days pass at the end of the month, and the month passes at the sunset of the night of al-Fitr . ”

Conditions of i’tikaf

I’tikaf had conditions that the scholars, may God have mercy on them, spoke of, and Khalid bin Ali Al-Mushaiqh limited them to eight and discussed the differences that took place by the scholars around them, acceptance and rejection. And fast, and the mosque, and it is clear from this – for example – that it is not valid to observe i’tikaaf of an unbeliever, because of the Almighty’s saying: {And nothing prevented them from paying their expenses do not accept, except that they are insane, nor are the hadiths they do not believe.

With regard to the requirement of fasting for the validity of itikaf, the scholars differed in those with regard to the sayings. The Shafi’is, the Hanbalis, Ibn Hazm and some of the Malikis were of the opinion that fasting was not necessary for the validity of itikaf A condition for the validity of itikaf at all.

It seems that Ibn Rushd has stoppedThe beginning of the hard-workingWith this disagreement about the conditions of itikaf to analyze it and know the reasons for it, he said: “The reason for their disagreement is that the itikaf of the messenger of God, peace and blessings of God on him , took place only in Ramadan.Fast with i’tikaaf, and who sees that it is agreed only by agreement, not that it was meant for him, peace and blessings be upon him, in i’tikaaf, he said: Fast is none of his conditions, and therefore there is another reason, which is his association with fasting in one verse.

Invalidators of i’tikaf

And i’tikaaf is not a heresy of other acts of worship, and therefore it has invalidities identified by scholars and mentioned by Khalid bin Ali al-Mushaiq in eleven invalidators and discussed the differences of scholars about it, namely: intercourse, intercourse with the woman and the like, ejaculation of semen, menstruation and postpartum emergence, fainting, madness, drunkenness, and committing great sins Apostasy, invalidating the fast, cutting the intention of itikaf, and death.

Apparently the previous invalidators have conditions, as the scholars differed “as to the conditions required for one of the invalidators of itikaf according to their differences as to whether it invalidates it or not.” These differences can be summarized in three statements: The second is that it is intentionally voluntary if the invalidity is by going out and related to it, and the third is that the i’tikaaf is totally invalid.


[1] “Al-Ithafaf fi Al-I’tikaf” is a very short message, he did not want anything concise: it achieved (66 pages), and the book “The Jurisprudence of Al-I’tikaf” is a book of which the author was interested in detail and came in (360 pages).

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