The previous article addressed a set of reasons for the failure of digital transformations, and the following short lines to supplement them, with the applications of integrated computerized systems, which are those systems that contain subsystems for every activity in the organization, and are comprehensive systems that can be used and operated in any field or activity. It has subsystems that correspond to each of them. For example, in the industrial activity you will find subsystems for each of the financial, commercial, administrative, human resources, industry and maintenance, shops, and so on.
There will be a central computer loaded with systems and connected to a number of computers or peripherals for organizational departments and activities, all of which are connected to a local area network or a remote network.
All its components are fully integrated, derived and extend their data to and from a single database, so data processing is centralized and all exchange data and information from a single database
It is applied in most or all of the operations of many organizations in the countries of the world, and the consequences of the failure of those systems can be serious, including the multitude of problems of financial, internal and external, especially litigation, which can leads to a financial collapse, and therefore organizations want to avoid damage to reputation due to failure, and prefer to redefine success rather than anything that can be gained from applications it has.
Before we talk about a group of causes of failure, and therefore a number of advantages and disadvantages of computerized systems in brief:
1. Deduplication of the presence of data for the existence of a single database,
2. Improved procedures, processes and documentation.
Providing real-time and accurate information on request and on time.
4. Save time and effort.
5. Lower costs in the long run.
6. Increase efficiency.
7. The ability to make a quick and correct decision in a guaranteed way based on correct and timely information.
8. Improvements to IT controls and management.
9. Additional improvements to products and services in a time of rapid technological change.
10. It generates economic benefits in the future.
11. More scalable and allows for additional product deployment and updates.
12. Suitable for purpose in the emerging digital world in which you work.
1) Possibility of unauthorized access to data and information.
2) Lack of timely updates.
3) Do not follow the best practices of the software industry.
4) The difficulty of integrating with computerized systems other than their original source.
5) The possibility that the software contains some errors.
6) Incorrect process flow functions.
7) Cost since the more recent the thing, the higher the upfront cost.
8) The difficulty of implementation, the length of the learning curve, and the need for certain experiences.
9) Continuous association with one entity, which in turn controls the processes of development, modification, modernization, and so on.
10) Exceptions regarding user access and change management.
11) unforeseen costs.
Several reasons for failure:
There are things that are not hidden from experts and specialists in the field. In addition to the pros and cons discussed, global studies say that the risks surrounding the development and operation of computerized systems application projects, which require attention from the beginning with all projects related to financial, administrative, logistical and human resources requirements.The most important of these is the conscious and understanding management of the requirements of management for change.
The reasons for failure are manifold, including the internationally known in the form of percentages, as these percentages are each attributed to the opposite, thus the process of not accepting the principle of change represents about 60% While acceptance of change is about 40%, etc .:
1) Do not accept the principle of change 60%
2) Enterprise culture 58%
3) loose organization 48%
4) Fear of the unknown 43%
5) System Deficiencies 40%
6) Drivers’ incompatibility 35%
7) Managers’ lack of enthusiasm for the project 35%
8) Significant changes in a short time 36%
9) Weakness in performance measurement systems 33%
10) The inability to ensure the commitment of all parties during the duration of the project 23%
11) Previous failed experiments 21 %
12) Lack of interest of the beneficiaries 21%
13) A shortage of human energy 20%
14) Correct data 30%
In addition to this:
♦ The lack of adequate and specialized human resources in the field of management and administration of the systems and the malfunctioning of performance.
♦ Lack of design and maintenance of effective controls regarding the implementation and operation of the systems.
♦ Problems related to the processing and change of data collection, import and migration procedures from the current situation to the new system, and the correct documentation of the daily work procedures.
♦ Late start and cost overrun.
♦ Internal deficiencies, dissatisfaction of employees and opposition to the work provided to them.
♦ Possibility of declining levels of customer service and satisfaction.
With God’s help, the next article will address a group of causes of technological backwardness in developing countries.
M. Ahmed Al-Mahdi Al-Majdoub