Of the signs of usury .. and what you gave of usury to increase in people’s money

There are many noble verses in the Noble Qur’an revealed to him by the Prophet, peace and blessings of God on the prohibition of usury, and they are called the weeds of usury, because it dissolves the substance of usury, and with their connotations the taking of usury, its handling, contracting with it occurs, and all the means or means leading to it stop. And among these verses, which came in Surat al-Rum, the saying of the Almighty: [الروم: 39]. This verse took place in the context of benevolence to the next of kin and the needy, and the credit that results from this good deed, to indicate that spending in a way other than charity is a mistake and involves a burden, and it includes usury and the intentions that result from the actions that emerge from charity, but in reality it involves usury. , which is an abuse in the place of kindness.

In this regard, Ibn Ashour says in “Al-Tahrir wal-Tanweer” (21/105):

“When the encouragement and the commission to give that money to the needy, the bonds of kinship, and those involved in the cultivation, were followed by stabbing another kind of money-giving with which God Almighty would not be satisfied, and usury was high tide. in the time of ignorance and the beginning of Islam, especially in Thaqif and Quraysh. When God led the Muslims to comfort the rich and the poor, He followed this by preparing their souls to refrain from dealing with usury to those who borrowed from them, because dealing with usury is contrary to compassion, because the borrower’s case is that he is family. , and the lender’s case is that he has a grandmother.

What is the meaning of usury in the Almighty’s verse (and what you gave of usury)?

Most of the commentators in this honorable verse carried usury about raising money for someone else, that is, giving money to those with money to increase their money to get closer to them, and that includes the gift of reward and the gift of the rapist and flattery. [التحرير والتنوير (21/ 105)].

Al-Qurtubi said: Usury here is legal interest, and it is he who leads to be rewarded with what is better than it, neither for him nor against him, he has no reward for it and there is no sin on him not. Ibn Abbas said: “And what you gave from usury.” He wants to give a man something he hopes to be better rewarded for, because it is the one who does not increase with God and does not reward his owner, but there is no sin on him. Ibn Abbas followed this meaning through most of his students. They all said: This is a verse revealed about the gift of reward. [تفسير القرطبي: 14/36].

Ibn Attia said: What happens in the course of what a person does to be rewarded for him, like peace and others, is, and if there is no sin in it, there is no reward for it and no increase in it with God the Almighty.

Rafiq Al-Masry said: It should be noted here that the reward can be as much as the gift, so it will be an equal reward, and it can be more, what is meant here, so the reward is usury. And the gift of reward carries those involved. I mean the reward is more general than the reward, so the reward can mean justice, or it can mean an increase in it, since the word “reward” can correspond to charity with a greater good than that. The jurists expressed this meaning when they used the phrase “gift of reward … When the gift was added to the reward, this addition was meant to add to the equivalence, not just to equivalence.”[1].

And this last meaning, which is the verdict on someone giving a gift to ask for its reward, differed in the verdict on this type of gift of reward. This difference was mentioned by Al-Qurtubi:

Imam Malik said: Look at that, and if he is like him who seeks reward from the one who is given to him, then he has it, like the gift of the poor to the rich, the gift of a servant to his master , and the gift of a man to his ruler and those above him, and this is one of the two opinions of Shafi’i.

Abu Hanifa said: He has no reward if it is not stipulated, and that is the view of the other Shafi’i. He said: The gift for the reward is invalid and does not benefit him because it is a sale at an unknown price.

Abu Hanifa argued that the subject of the gift is donation, so if we demand compensation in it, the meaning of donation will be void and it will be in the sense of compensation.[2].

As for the evidence for the Malikis, which Malik told in his Muwatta on the authority of Omar Ibn Al-Khattab, may God be pleased with him, that he said: “Any man who gives a gift that he thinks is for reward , he is on his gift until he is satisfied with it. ”

On Ali’s authority, may God be pleased with him, he said: Talents are three: a talent meant for the face of God, a talent meant for the faces of men, and a talent meant for is to be rewarded.

Al-Bukhari, may God have mercy on him, translated (Chapter of Reward in the Gift) and quoted the hadith of Aisha, who said: The Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be with him, used gifts and accept reward for it, and reward a pollinator. He did not deny the owner of it when he demanded the reward, but rather he denied his dissatisfaction with the reward and it was more than the value[3].

But if the donor asks for his gift above his compensation, and if the gift remains unchanged, he can take what he wants or give it back to him. But when the gift is implemented, it has nothing but value in consistency.

And the estimate is in this verse: “And what you have received from usury” ie what you have done out of usury, what is the increase, and what is meant by it, is the gift or gift that is meant to achieve more than that . {to grow in people’s money} the giver, that is, Yazid. {Do not magnify God} He does not praise Him, He blesses Him, and there is no reward in Him for the givers. ”[4]. This is because the giver did not want the face of God Almighty, but rather wanted a reward.

There is another meaning mentioned by Al-Baghawi[5] That usury here is the forbidden usury that is increasing in people’s money, and the intention is to hijack people’s money and lure it. And here it means usurer of the loan, so this God does not recognize this usurer, because it is forbidden money, therefore He judges it for the one who takes it from it, and does not judge it for the one who takes it, and the another meaning is that God does not reward him for proof of its prohibition.

Dr. Rafiq Yunus Al-Masry said: Whether the purpose is a gift of reward or something else, the verse attracts the attention of believers from usury to zakat, whether from usury gifts to zakat gifts, or from usury loans to zakat loans, which is (good loans).

[1] The whole in the origin of usury (30).
[2] Care in explaining guidance (9/57).
[3] Interpretation of Al-Qurtubi (14/38), and the provisions of the Qur’an by Ibn Al-Arabi (3/523).
[4] Al-Munir Al-Tafsir – Al-Zuhaili (21/92)
[5] Tafsir al-Baghawi (3/579).

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