Internationally organized crime includes all forms of human trafficking, Such as trafficking in human beings, drugs, weapons, stolen vehicles, wild animals and plants, and the consequent corruption and money laundering.. This crime increased significantly with The growth of the movement of people, goods and capitalwhich keeps pace with technical developments and has begun to rely on modern technologies to recycle dirty money, or to refine its traditional activities or to develop new activities such as cybercrime.
Among the emerging types of crimes we should mention cyber crimes and environmental crimes.
Environmental crime is now the fourth most lucrative crime in the world. It has become urgent to recognize it, of all kinds, as a type of organized crime as defined in the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and this type of crime includes animal trafficking, forest or mine exploitation, illegal fishing and illegal trade. . Legality of waste, and others. This will enable us to strengthen our operational capabilities at national level and international cooperation with countries of origin, transit and destination.
France has significantly improved its national capabilities to combat organized crime, Whether in terms of judicial mechanisms or in terms of coordination between state institutions, such as the police, the judiciary, foreign affairs, the economy, finance and defense.
However, the fight against organized crime is a challenge for the entire international community. This type of crime, along with the terrorism it contributes to funding, represents the most serious non-military threats to security and economic stability in the world. On the other hand, human trafficking is a serious violation of human rights.
As criminals ignore borders, tackling them requires a global approach to combating organized crime and strengthening international cooperation, especially at the judicial and criminal levels. for this reason, France plays an active role in multilateral fora against organized crime, while ensuring its consistency and feasibility. It is also working to strengthen its bilateral cooperation with various countries in the field of internal security.
What is organized crime?
Crime is organized when it is committed “A group with an organizational structure that is established over time and works together to commit crimes to obtain a financial or material benefit.”as defined by the European Union and the United Nations. Organized crime is defined by the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, better known as the Palermo Convention and which includes 189 state parties, as all “crimes of a transnational nature committed by a group with a structured […] In order to obtain a financial benefit or a material benefit, which are very serious crimes and are punishable by imprisonment for a period of not less than four years.
The European Union is committed to a voluntary policy in the fight against organized crime.
This policy will be applied within Political cycle 2018-2021 against international organized crime. It provides for the strengthening of cooperation between the competent entities of the Member States, between the institutions and agencies of the European Union, with other countries and organizations and the private sector. Its main objectives are as follows:
- Combating cybercrime In particular, attacks on information systems, trafficking in children for the purposes of sexual exploitation, counterfeiting and non-cash means of payment,
- Combating drug trafficking in particular by hampering the activities of organized crime offenders, by weakening networks involved in drug trafficking and distribution, as well as by counteracting the production of synthetic drugs and new psychoactive substances,
- Combating the smuggling of migrants By fighting the criminal groups that facilitate illegal immigration,
- Organized robbery and burglary Highly mobile criminal organizations carry out robberies and robberies in the European Union.
- Combating human trafficking,
- Combating the links between human trafficking and tax evasionin particular the smuggling of taxable goods, such as tobacco or alcohol, or the evasion of value-added tax,
- Combating trade in firearms,
- Combating environmental crimein particular the trade in wild animals and the illegal trade in waste,
- Against money launderingby targeting money laundering operations carried out mainly by new payment methods,
- forgery of documentsespecially the issuance of forged papers.
The European Police Office is the core of the European mechanism
The European Police Office (Europol) was established in 1999 to facilitate the exchange of information between Member States, the conduct of forensic analyzes and the assessment of the level of threats, and is at the heart of the mechanism against transnational organized crime, together with the European Union Judicial Cooperation Unit (Eurojust). France is also actively involved in promoting a united Europol.
United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
France plays a vital role in the various relevant international forums, in particular the United Nations. She played a very active role in the negotiations on United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime which was signed in the year 2000.
The renewal provided by the agreement is represented in the following three points:
- editing International definitions of some basic concepts in criminal law In the field of combating organized crime, such as organized crime, serious crime, proceeds of crime, etc.
- Approximate criminal lawby forcing states to criminalize participation in an organized criminal group, money laundering, obstruction of justice and corruption in their national legislation.
- Strengthen International judicial cooperation By establishing procedures for mutual legal assistance and extradition in a global framework. The agreement provides specific provisions for the detection of dirty money and the seizure and confiscation of criminal assets.
Three additional protocols are attached to the Convention, which are mainly punitive instruments:
- Protocol against human trafficking Requires states to include crimes that include the prosecution of organized crime groups that traffick people in their criminal law. The protocol contains a broad definition of human trafficking which includes sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, serviceability and the removal of organs.
- Protocol against the smuggling of migrants by land, sea and air obliges states to prosecute smugglers who regulate the illegal entry of migrants, and those who assist migrants to live illegally in the territory of the host state;
These two protocols oblige states to return to their nationals and permanent residents who have been victims of human trafficking or smuggling of migrants.
- Protocol against human trafficking in firearms It provides provisions similar to those of the two protocols against human trafficking and smuggling of migrants.
The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime is implemented through conferences of state parties. After more than ten years of negotiations, the States Parties decided in 2018 to follow A review mechanism for the Convention and its three protocols. The mechanism will be a peer review involving civil society in order to formulate good practices.
United Nations Convention against Corruption
The United Nations Convention against Corruption, signed in Merida in December 2003, provides for the first time in international law, The principle of recovery of proceeds from the offenses of embezzlement and laundering of public funds. Implementation of the Convention is based on the Conference of State Parties, as is the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. France, which ratified this text in 2007, is actively participating in all negotiation processes for setting international criminal standards, whether in the form of recommendations, decisions or more binding instruments.
Leon-Rome group against organized crime and terrorism of the group of seven
The Lyon-Roma team is A G7 task force dedicated to the fight against terrorism and transnational organized crime. The team includes delegations and experts from the Group of Seven, the European Union, international organizations such as the International Criminal Police Organization, the United Nations and others, and from countries specifically invited to participate.
This forum for reflection and the exchange of experiences provides for the preparation of the work of the summit and ministerial meetings of the Group of Seven, especially those held in the context of combating organized crime, covering cybercrime, drugs, human trafficking. , etc. .
On the occasion of its presidency of the Group of Seven in 2019, France emphasized the fight against environmental crime and the fight against migrant smugglers.
The International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) was established in 1923 and is headquartered in Lyon, France.. INTERPOL has secure global police communication channels and operational databases, and provides Practical support and training for police departments. The organization also provides training and working groups to exchange investigations, conduct criminal analyzes, and generate statistics.
France prioritises activities related to the internal security of France by attacking criminal networks at their roots or in transit countries, and these activities are carried out by the International Police Technical Cooperation Service of the International Cooperation Department of the Ministry of Home Affairs, which is one of the largest in the world.
Every year, France concludes many bilateral agreements on internal security, complemented by multilateral cooperation, as France continually joins more sub-regional, regional and global initiatives.