Musicology and their works in heritage

Musicology is an art of the visual arts that expresses human nature. It is divided into two groups: the arts that appeal to the audience, which are music and poetry, and the arts that address the sight, which are architecture, sculpture and photography. the animal as in man, therefore it is described as natural and that the human soul cares for it.

The Greek philosophers were the first to provide music and singled it out for research and writing, but the Arabs were no less interested in music in their ignorance because Arabic poetry was linked to seas and musical rhythms, and the continued interest in the arrival of Islam is evidenced by the caliph’s interest in the owners of singers, musicians and poets, and the activity of the translation movement of Greece’s musical heritage in connection with the revival of The Arab Musical Classification Movement, and before we talk about the manifestations of the musical renaissance in Islamic civilization, it is worth mentioning briefly some aspects of the Islamic debate regarding music by what Imam Al-Ghazali wrote in his book (The Revival of the Sciences of Religion), the chapter on the label of listening and finding.

Music and listening for Imam Al-Ghazali

The idea that Al-Ghazali advocates is that listening and music are not taboo, and he puts forward legal and rational arguments to prove it; And his legal argument: “The statement of the one who said that listening is forbidden means that God Almighty will punish him, and this is a matter that is not known merely by reason, but by hearing; And knowledge of legality is limited to: the text or analogy to the stipulated, and I mean by the text that he, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, revealed by his saying or doing and by analogy understand the meaning from his words and actions. ”

As for the rational argument, the first of which is his memorization of the Almighty’s saying (The most condemned sounds are the voice of donkeys) indicating “in its meaning, praise the good voice. It is meaningless, so why is it not permissible? to hear a voice that understands wisdom and the right meanings. ”

The second is his assertion that singing touches man as it touches the unreasonable, and he gives two examples of it, the young child in his cradle when his mother threatens him, therefore he turns away from his crying to listen to her, and the camel “with the dullness of its nature is affected by the shoes, an effect that underestimates heavy loads, … This is how you see it when the valleys are long and exhausted. And tiredness under bearings and burdens, when you call the shoe, stretch out his neck and listen to the one at the corner of his ears, and accelerate it. ” It follows that “he who is not moved by spring, his flowers, the lute and his strings, is corrupt in mood and has no solution.”

And Imam Al-Ghazali believes that singing is valid without objection in a number of places, and his ruling in it revolves around the recommendation and the admissibility, including:

  • Singing of the pilgrims, they walk around the land with drums, shaheen and singing, and this is permissible, because these are poems that describe the Kaaba, the sanctuary, Zamzam and other feelings and others, and this is what the longing for the pilgrimage stimulus. to the House of God Almighty.
  • Songs that insist on jihad, this is what the invaders used to incite people to invasion and jihad.
  • And the jihads that the brave use during the battle, its purpose is to encourage the soul and motivate the activity of the supporters to fight, and it praises courage and help.
  • The shepherds’ song, known as the shoe, is what the shepherds use to motivate the camels to walk and inspire activity in them.
  • Social singing, as in times of joy, such as singing on: the days of Eid, at the wedding, at the arrival of the absentees, at the feast and the ‘aqeeqah, at the birth of the newborn baby, when he is circumcised is, and when he memorized the Holy Quran, and all this is permissible to show pleasure in it.

But his admissibility is not absolute, because singing is forbidden if five incidents obstruct it, such as singing to a woman whom it is not permissible to look at and fearing harassment from her, or the instrument is one of the symbols of evil and corrupt people, namely: flutes, strings and drums These three types are forbidden to him, or the poetry that sings obscene and deceptively about it, or when the listener’s desires prevail, especially when he is young, and finally has to be the listener of the common people whose hearts the love of God is not strong, therefore he prefers entertainment and listens to worship and acts of worship.

The status of music among the sciences

The Muslims therefore found nothing wrong with paying attention to music, especially when it became one of the ways of self-discipline or a way of showing joy and happiness at social events. who regarded the sciences of his time as a science, where he treated musicology from three aspects, namely: the instruments and their names, which is an accurate census and an explanation of musical instruments in the fourth century, and which the tunes written about music, and finally musical rhythms and the differences between them.

Ibn Abd al-Barr spoke in his book (Jami ‘Bayan al-Ilm wa Fadlh) in the following century about the position of musicology among the sciences, and that the sciences for the people of religions are divided into three sections:

  • A higher knowledge, and this is the science of religion about which no one is allowed to speak other than what God has set forth in his books.
  • And a middle science, which is the knowledge of the world sciences from which knowledge of a thing is by knowing its counterpart, and it is derived by its gender and type.
  • And lower knowledge, and it is a knowledge not of this world and the Hereafter, like poetry and to be engaged in it.

It is understood from what Ibn Abd al-Barr called that the Arabs classified music within the category of middle science and regarded it as a branch of mathematical sciences, and this classification remained common until the eleventh century AH – and perhaps afterwards – when Haji Khalifa spoke of musicology as a “mathematical science” looking at: the conditions of melody In terms of similarity and dissonance, and the conditions of the times between clicks in terms of weight and lack thereof; To know how to compose a melody.

Khalifah’s musicology includes two researches: the states of melody, or what is called the science of composition, and the times, or what is called the science of rhythm, and its purpose: to gain knowledge of how to compose melodies . It is rather “the making of souls, and speaking souls, to the world of Jerusalem, not just entertainment and rapture,” as Haji Khalifa assumes.

Another science related to music is “The Science of Wonderful Musical Instruments” which researches musical instruments and is called by the author of “Kashf al-Dunun” within the sciences circulating in his time, a science from which he learns how to make and install them, and he named three groups of musical instruments:

  • Drums and percussion instruments such as: the bass, the tabla, the naqara and the circle.
  • And the Psalms: including the flute, the surna, the nafir, the Mithqal, the words and an instrument called: Buri and Dudak.
  • Dhat al-Awtar: including the tanbour, the rabab, and an instrument called Qabouz, and Jink, and so on.
Disclosure of suspicions about the names of books and art
Uncover suspicions about the names of books and art

Arabs and musical classification

There are many music books mentioned by literary sources and referred to, most of which are missing and not found, and the oldest of them date from the era of the Umayyad Caliphate and are (Kitab al-Najm) already mentioned by Yunus . -Katib (d .: 148), and what has been found of it, can be classified into categories, and its statement is as follows:

  • Works from the Status of Philosophers: Muslim philosophers have turned to classification in music, and perhaps the most prominent of those who have classified al-Kindi (256 AH) and have six books are: The Greatest Book of Composition, A Message on Melody and Melody, a Message on News Parts in Music, a Message in the News of the Composition Industry, The Book of Stringed Voices from One Stringed to Ten Stringed, the abbreviation of music in the composition of the melody and the making of the lute or saying on the melody, and he followed his approach by Al-Farabi (d .: 339 AH) and he has seven musical compositions, including: The Introduction to the Music Industry (the first article), a message in Musicology , the great book of music, a book about rhythms.
  • Works in Musicology: These are works dealing with music and related sciences such as the science of melody and rhythm, including: (Melodies and Rhythm) by Ishaq al-Mawsili (deceased: 235 AH) and (A Brief Art of Tunes) by Thabit bin Qurra (288 AH), the author of unique musical compositions, and (The Old and Musical Instruments) (and a book on music), both by Yahya bin Ali Al-Munajjim, and (A Brief in the Art) of Rhythm) by Abu Al-Wafa ‘Al-Buzjani from the fourth century, and (A Treatise on Melodies) by Shihab Al-Din Al-Ajami, and (Al Adwar) by Safi Al-Din Al-Armawi (d. 693) AH), a dissertation on musicology by Salah al-Din al-Safadi (deceased: 764 AH), and a book (A Treatise on the Anatomy of Sound Instruments) by Haneen bin Ishaq.
  • Works on musical instruments: There are many and referred to by the bibliographers, but most of them are unknown writers or translators because a large number of them have been translated from Greek. Examples are: the organ by Al-Zamri, the jingle, and the letter about the trumpet industry, all of which are unknown and mentioned by the author.The music historian Farmer, and (Kitab fi Al-Zumar) by Thabit bin Qurra.

These works led us to believe that music was not a marginal or neglected science among the Arabs, and that the scope of its classification expanded and diversified so that it was not limited to the theoretical side, but also included the practical side. has. of musicology and was not just a shift in the heritage of Greece.

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