Individual and gang violence … The causes are many, and the victims are men and women

In the 17th century, the English writer Joseph Sweetnam published in 1615 a book, The Accusation of Bad, Unployed, Indecent, and Unrepentant Women, during the early modern debate about the place of women in society. The book was a sufficient amount of sexist jokes, and it was very popular, and of course the satirist moved from an old mentality that started with the injustice of women since Eve, who seduced Adam from heaven, and it is her eternal stain in the prevailing public concepts at the time and which still exist in many traditional societies.

Since then, the term “female hair” has appeared by men, used to describe social inequalities between men and women, such as the gender pay gap, the problems women face in obtaining adequate medical care, or the deprivation of it under religious laws. applicable in many countries of her legal rights to custody of her children or inheritance, or to remain silent about her exposure to domestic violence for fear of scandal, or to prevent her from education, or to keep her silent about physical and verbal harassment to prevent her from being socially stigmatized. This justification is always present in backward societies, that is, the woman deprives her guardian of what she deserves. William Safire, a New York Times author who has been writing about the structure of the English language for decades, noted in 2008 that the Oxford English Dictionary had expanded its definition of misogyny by 2002 to include “sexism”, which means that “sexists” and misogyny are now in many respects synonymous “, but this does not only apply to women, there is probably a problem to which men are exposed, which is called” misogyny “by women.

The term misogyny and its connotations

The term “misogyny” was little used in the centuries after Sweetnam’s book, but the term increased in popularity in the mid-1970s and entered the terminology of second-wave feminism with Andrea Dworkin’s 1974 critique of Woman Hate, When she considered that deep-rooted prejudice against women is rooted in all aspects of social life from laws to lived life, she said: “As women we live in the midst of a society we despise.”

When we start with the definition of domestic violence, according to the U.S. Department of Justice, it is “a pattern of abusive behavior that one partner uses to gain or retain control over another intimate partner.” According to Psychology Today researcher Dmitro Zinkevich, domestic violence can be physical or psychological, and although each relationship is different, domestic violence usually involves an unequal dynamic of power in which one partner tries to assert control over the other with insults, threats, emotional abuse and sexual coercion. . Some offenders may use children, pets, or other family members as emotional pressure to get their victim to do what they want, and women victims of domestic violence experience low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and a general sense of helplessness. Violence also includes the prevailing local cultural norms that are stronger than the laws in many societies, where the concepts of honor, revenge and ransom control the problem and not the general laws that accept that women are equal to men in civil law. Male aggressors often believe that a woman’s lead role should be to take care of her partner, children and home, and she is almost like a prisoner as she is prevented from going out or under strict control of her freedom outside the home , and she may be accused of high treason for any reason, for the purpose of more male control.

It can take time before victims of domestic violence admit to being abused, and this is often addressed when an abused woman experiences bruising, broken legs, shortness of breath and involuntary tremor. Domestic violence is the most common cause of harm to women, with more accidents than car accidents around the world.

Domestic violence against men

But the other side of the same coin is that a man can also be exposed to domestic violence, as a recent UK study indicated that nine per cent of men in Britain are exposed to domestic violence, which includes harassment, sexual assault and physical violence. Other research suggests that 28 percent of men experience partner violence in the United States. But the biggest problem lies in social concepts, as men face obvious obstacles to seeking help because of their unbelief or because they are denied help from shelters, such as those designated for women, but the biggest problem, whether for women or men, is to stay in an abusive relationship because the pattern of abuse is not identified. And because the decision to leave is very difficult due to financial stress, a lack of anywhere else to go, threats of violence and a lack of legal support, all contribute to the social pressure that the two parties force to continue in the bad relationship to prevent dishonor.

Sadistic and masochistic violence

The problem is that all forms of violence against men and women are interpreted as a result of discrimination in rights and duties between women and men, but there are types of violence that take place according to agreement between the two parties, i.e. the party that desires physical torture. . and is called a masochist, and the party that likes to use violence against the partner is the sadist. But the problem is that one side has one characteristic without the other, or that what is entertainment and pleasure or passion and lust turns into physical violence that is original, harmful, permanent and repetitive.

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According to research in the Journal of Contemporary Psychology, consensual sadomasochism should not be confused with acts of sexual assault, while sadists and masochists seek pain and so on in the context of love and sex, they may not ask for it in other situations and may not be violent in life. . Sadomasochistic practices are very diverse, and one study identified four distinct groups: hyper-masculinity, pain management and reception, physical limitation, and psychological humiliation. Interestingly, the study found that gay men tend to be more hyper-masculine, while heterosexual men are more prone to humiliation. The two terms were coined in the 19th century by the psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing, who spoke of the basic and natural tendencies of sadism in men and masochism in women. Sadism is derived from the name of the 18th century Marquis de Sade, author of Justin of The Calamity of Virtue (1791) and other books. As for masochism, it is named after Leopold von Sacher Masoch, author of the book “Venus in Fur” in the year 1870, while Jean-Jacques Rousseau in his book “Confessions” (1782) expresses the sexual pleasure he felt from beats in childhood.

The Kama Sutra, which dates from the second century, contains an entire chapter devoted to “blows and shouts”, that is, the practice of sexual relations as a form of combat.

The interrelationship between individual violence and social violence

Author Jonathan Gottschall, author of The Storytelling Animal How Stories Make Us Human, argues that different forms of violence, such as those directed at the self, should be addressed or considered together against another individual, or intergroup violence, sometimes increases and collapses, but at times Others replace each other with another, for example, an improvement in the economy can lower homicide rates, but the next time there is a recession, homicides may remain the same while suicide rates rise.

This is where politics and medicine meet, says Gottschall, where individual violence can arise from a general system such as living under a weak and tyrannical leader and a population with poor collective mental health that contributes to the production of mass hysteria ( Erich Fromm 1955). .

According to Gottsal, violence is complicated for several reasons, as individual, family and societal causes contribute to violence, one reason triumphs over all other causes, it predicts the rise or decrease of violence reliably, this only factor is inequality, national and transverse. -national studies have shown Many, large or small, argue that inequality is the most powerful cause of violence (Wilkinson and Beckett 2011). Besides being the most powerful cause of violent behavior, inequality is a form of violence in itself, called structural violence (Johan Galtung 1969). It is an important concept that refers to the avoidable restrictions that societies place on groups of people, whether they are Economic, political, religious, cultural or legal in nature, it refers to violence that arises in institutions that have power over certain topics exercise. Because these limitations are embedded in social structures, it is common for people to see them as nothing more than ordinary problems they encounter in the course of their daily lives.

Unlike more obvious forms of violence, where a person or group of people physically harms another person or group, structural violence occurs in a less visible way.

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