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The German economic success after the Second World War formed what was known as the economic miracle, and Germany was able to revive its factories again, and worked to make the “German machine” an example of power and quality, but this success was not only achieved. by the hands of the German people only, but was It depends on management and labor, and to fill the shortfall in the second part was the trust in exiled workers from Italy, Eastern Europe and Turkey.
German industries continued to achieve several successes, as well as steady economic growth; Until the economy became the number one in Europe, and as a result of these successes, Germany together with a group of partners made the European Union, and also took care to prevent the collapse of the euro after 2009 and the economies of countries of bankruptcy, including Greece, Spain and Portugal, as well as structural problems in the Italian economy.
Despite this; There are major problems in the stronger economy, on top of that comes the massive shortage of labor, or what is now being declared about Germany’s need for two million migrant workers, or what was previously stated by the head of the Federal Employment Agency in Germany Detlev Scheele on 24 August 2021 that Germany needs about 400,000 skilled immigrants annually to make up the labor shortage.
The password in the population pyramid
Nabil Shabib, an expert on German affairs, told Al Jazeera Net that although Germany has a high population density, it is an industrial country that does not have energy and raw materials, as dependence on “management and labor” remains high.
He adds that the more the country was able to develop itself economically after World War II; His need for expats was great from the start, at a time when Germany was different from traditional colonial countries; It does not, like France and Britain, have relatively high numbers of foreign communities.
It is supposed to take into account that the second generation after the war differs from its predecessors, as it became known as the “68th generation”, with reference to what became known as the student revolution in 1968, and the most important result of this situation is an imbalance in the population age pyramid, ie a decrease in the percentage of work skills In the production age compared to the increase in elderly, in light of the different outlook on social life, especially the formation of the family , in addition to the increase in average life expectancy due to the improvement of health and medical data.
The birth rate decreased to the mathematical equivalent of 1.5 births per woman. Annual births (9.5 per thousand) no longer compensate for deaths (11.5 per thousand), while about 75% of women of working age (20-64 years) work.
The German state has failed to manage at least two areas, the first of which is to follow technical and electronic developments in the network era, as it is no longer the first in the world, which led to, for example, a severe shortage of distance education during the Covid-19 epidemic.
Although the number of working elderly people (above retirement age) has doubled from 7% to at least 15%, the percentage of non-working elderly people, together with the percentage of children under working age; It is still growing and creating gaps in many areas.
As for the required work skills, Shabib said that there are a set of classifications, from which we can identify 4; The first is mathematics, the second is the software sectors, the third is natural sciences, medicine and healthcare, and the fourth is technical skills in terms of preparation and practical experience, even if the university specialization is absent.
According to data from the German Ministry of the Interior, “With the retirement of the baby tree generation in Germany (from 1946 to 1964) from the labor market, the situation in this area will sharply worsen from 2030.”
In the opinion of dr. Eng. Samer Rahal, Director of Technology Operations at Indorama Petrochemical Corporation, If Germany wants to maintain its positive economic growth and solid stability, and to maintain the integrity of its social security systems in their current form, it needs well-trained specialists from abroad.
According to the Interior Ministry, “the shortage of skilled workers and the lack of applicants has become a threat to the German economy and companies.”
As for the shortcomings, Rahal added that there is currently a severe shortage of technicians, engineers, doctors, information technology specialists, social care and nursing staff; For this reason, the Skilled Migration Act came into force in Germany on 1 March 2020.
In short, the Immigration for Skilled Labor Act aims to facilitate easier access to foreign skilled labor from countries outside the European Union in and better prospects for the German economy.
Details of the Skilled Migration Act
This law provides the legal framework for skilled workers who urgently need the German economy. Dr. Samer Rahal emphasized that Germany’s need is mainly for university graduates or specialists with highly qualified vocational training, and not for workers and those with low skills.
According to the regulations of this law, skilled workers with qualified vocational training may; Come to Germany temporarily or for a limited time to look for work.
This law confirms that qualified specialists from abroad must find their way to the labor market quickly and with a minimum of bureaucratic procedures, as the law allows the implementation of all necessary procedures in the responsible foreign body or embassies abroad on the initiative of the employer , ie the provision of the applicable employment contract with the provision of safe deadlines for work and for stay in Germany upon arrival.
Required nationalities and terms of recruitment
Regarding what is being said about the preference of certain nationalities in the German labor market, former German politician and parliamentarian Jamal Karsali told Al Jazeera Net: “Let us first acknowledge that the German labor market needs a labor force in all sectors, especially in the medical sector, where there is a huge shortage, as well as the market need To technicians and truck drivers.
Karsli adds, “It is not possible to talk about preferential nationalities, and the benefits offered to Ukrainian immigrants are the result of political and humanitarian circumstances. When Merkel opened Germany’s doors for Syrian refugees, it was not only from a humanitarian aspect but also from an acute shortage of labor, but it must also be Germany develops its administrative laws to receive workers, and there are those who say that Germany’s need for software can force it to to employ workers from India or elsewhere. “
Therefore, we can say that the required nationalities are those that they came to establish in Germany and not like the European nationalities that came from Eastern Europe; Where her children work and then return to their country, and thus the problem is not solved, but rather becomes more complicated.
Regarding the conditions of recruitment, Karsli said that there is an immigration law introduced by Germany, and the summary is that immigration:
This is done through communication with German embassies.
A person who wants to immigrate and work in Germany must provide his kind of occupation.
And to have a specific German language level.
He gets a 6-month visa, and if he gets a job, his stay is renewed, and if he does not get a job, he returns to his country.