Prof. Gamal Shakra, Professor of Modern and Contemporary History at Ain Shams University
Gamal Abdel Nasser asked the leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood before the July 23 revolution: “How would you deal with Egypt’s problems if you came to power? The answer was: Islam is the solution!
One of the big mistakes some make when rereading major historical events is to ignore the general context of the historical movement and not pay attention to the introductions that the facts yielded in the way it took place.
History is in fact intertwined and interconnected episodes. Each episode is a prelude to the next episode, and the new episode is the result of the historical development that preceded it. The revolution of the Egyptian people in 1805 and the election of Muhammad Ali as governor of Egypt were the result of the deteriorating conditions of Egypt at the end of the time of the Mamluk state, and after the Ottoman occupation of Egypt in 1517. And the Orabi Revolution was mainly due to political and administrative corruption and the colonial economic plunder of Egypt, which lasted from 1840 to 1882, and the Egyptian national movement in its various stages from 1882 to 1952 by the 1919 revolution, and before it was the struggle of Mustafa Kamel and Mohamed Farid and the symbols of the Egyptian middle class, all of whom were forerunners that paved the way for the officer revolution. change, and build the first republic.
The deviation from the revolution of its principles, the deterioration of economic and social conditions, and the domination of businessmen over power and wealth, especially in the last ten years of the reign of the late President Hosni Mubarak, were a prelude to the massive revolutionary uprising on 25 January 2011.
As for the forerunners of the 30 June 2013 revolution, they were, in fact and in general, born out of the womb of what happened in the aftermath of 25 January 2011 after (driving) and the opportunistic Brotherhood exploited the opportunity that they gave. , due to the January Revolutionary’s lack of a specific plan and leadership of a cohesive armed organization that has the ability to think, move and implement.
The rule of the Brotherhood was a major challenge to Egyptian personality and the constants of Egyptian history. The June 30 revolution was not just demonstrations aimed at bringing Brotherhood President Mohamed Morsi to life through the Brotherhood is like an image or front to rule, to overthrow. the oldest central state in history and to lead a great nation whose experience has been built over thousands of years. Therefore, this nation quickly realized the reality of what happened, and an elite of intellectuals, politicians and army leaders have the characteristics provided for the future. and how it would be dark if the Brotherhood remained in power.
Consequently, the voices of the Egyptian people began to rise and the need to confront the group and demand the need for change to preserve the Egyptian identity.
Anger has accumulated within state institutions and agencies, especially the intelligence services, and among the political elites, in addition to the growing public tension over the group’s policies.
This was the beginning of the first day when Mohamed Morsi tried to circumvent the law and take the constitutional oath on Tahrir Square in front of the crowded masses, most of whom were members of the group and sympathizers with it, and what not the truth of his goals and was deceived by his false slogans.
Although he was sworn in again at the University of Cairo, he was forced to repeat the oath before the Supreme Court in the Constitution.
This crisis aroused much doubt, then abuse continued, and Mohamed Morsi and the group made serious mistakes, the most important of which was the enactment of a bill for the return of the People’s Assembly and the Constitution Preparation Committee, the majority of whose members were group cadres and Salafi leaders Proposed by currents and civilian political forces.
The biggest concern of Morsi and his group was to empower Brotherhood elements in all state institutions and to appoint the group’s youth to key positions. ) Member of the leading body of the Salafi Al-Nour Party in creating a major rift between the Salafi Al- Nour Party and the Brotherhood.
From day one, the military establishment was indignant at the behavior of President (Brotherhood) Mohamed Morsi, who fired Field Marshal Tantawi, Minister of Defense, and Chief of Staff Lieutenant-General Sami Anan, in addition to targeting the media and press and accusing them of ” violators of the law and tax evaders ”.
The greatest disaster was when presidential decrees were issued to pardon and release hardened criminals, some of whom were imprisoned for committing major crimes and crimes, and most of whom were sentenced to death or to life imprisonment with hard labor. .
The release of these people and their sending to Sinai provoked the resentment of the Egyptian people, and the intelligence services were terrified of this behavior and expected the terrorist group to plan to separate Sinai from Egypt and make it a headquarters for an armed organization that will be used against the army and police when necessary.
Anyone who has observed the succession of incidents during the first months of Morsi al-Ayyat’s rule has noted the excessive issuance of constitutional declarations and laws aimed at empowering the group, such as the constitutional declaration issued on August 11, 2012 is, and the decision of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces to retire the next day, 12 August 2012 The constitutional declaration was issued on 22 November 2012, which is the most dangerous of all decisions issued in this dark year of Egypt’s rule is.
President Morsi’s speeches provoked ridicule, sarcasm and alienation among all classes, segments and groups, and the term Fouloul, which he used to describe his opponents, was ridiculous as it was impossible for those against President Hosni Mubarak and his regime has revolted to be his.
Just as public opinion did not accept Morsi and the Brotherhood as unbelievers for its opponents, just as the Egyptian people were angry about the Brotherhood’s flirtation with the Shiites, and the quest to establish a Revolutionary Guard like the Iranian Revolutionary Guard , which bypassed the Egyptian army. or at least the reduction of its power and the Egyptian police force, as well as the rejection of the Egyptian people built Tolerance and respect for the other Brotherhood followers of a political divide and rule and threaten the Copts.
On the other hand, the feelings of the Egyptian people – even those who opposed the policies of the late President Anwar Sadat after the October victory and the conclusion of the peace treaty – were provoked by Morsi and his group celebrating the October victory with commemorating the participation. of Sadat’s assassination, led by Tariq Al-Zumar.
In addition, the presidential palaces saw an invasion of the group’s leaders, including Yasser Ali, the presidential spokesman, dr. Essam Al-Haddad, the President’s Assistant to Foreign Relations and International Cooperation, and at the same time a member of the Counseling Office and responsible for the Group’s Foreign Relations File, and Ahmed Abdel-Aty, Director of the Office of the President of the Republic. Also a member of the group, dr. Mohi El-Din Hamed, adviser to the president and a member of the Counseling Office as well, dr. Hussein Al-Qazzaz, adviser to the president and a member of the group, and dr. Omaima Kamel Al-Salmouni, the president’s adviser on women’s affairs and a member of the Freedom and Justice Party. as dr. Issam Al-Arian, the president’s adviser on foreign affairs, said the above applies to all state institutions where they have been hacked and a large number of cadres and youths of the group have been appointed to leadership positions.
The truth is that Egypt was administered by the Enforcement Office, and President Morsi was nothing more than a facade driven by the guide and Khairat al-Shater, turning the political conflict between the government and the opposition into an ideological conflict. has.
One of the sins that the Egyptian people did not forgive Morsi and his group, and perhaps one of the main reasons for the explosion of the June 30 revolution, was the group’s alliance with armed takfiri and jihadist organizations, of which the main Al Qaeda, where the group planned to rely on terrorist mercenaries in its fight against civilian forces and state institutions, especially the police and the military.
The group did not understand the lessons of history and repeated the same mistakes they made in the thirties of the twentieth century when they had a stubborn and hostile attitude towards the political parties, powers and ideological groups that were in the political at the time. street was active, took over. revolutionary socialists, nationalists and liberals.
The group had earlier retaliated and retaliated against these currents and reiterated the practice of violence and assassination against its members. If we go beyond many details, it is remarkable that the group’s lack of a comprehensive and integrated economic vision to address Egypt’s problems, save the middle class and alleviate the suffering of the poor and marginalized, is one of the most important factors were what led to the Egyptian people’s revolution against them on 30 June.
Perhaps it should be noted here that Abdel Nasser, when he asked the leaders of the Brotherhood before the revolution of July 23, 1952: How would you handle Egypt’s problems when you came to power? Their answer was Islam is the solution!
When asked about a modernizing renaissance project that addresses the problems of ignorance, poverty and disease? Did not find a convincing answer!
Thus, when they came to power more than forty years after the departure of Abdel Nasser, they did not have a theory or an effective treatment for Egypt’s problems, which led to the social fabric in Egypt being subjected to violent tremors. is, and the deterioration of economic and social conditions, as well as the deterioration of Egypt’s foreign relations. To make matters worse, the group’s insistence on terrorizing the Egyptian people and using force against all opposition forces made matters worse.
In view of the escalation of the anger of the Egyptian people, the Brotherhood held a sit-in on June 10, 2013 in Rabaa Al-Adawiya Square in Nasr City, as well as in Al-Nahda Square near Cairo University in a dangerous precedent It has not happened in the history of Egypt that the government has occupied the squares of its land to force the people to accept it and give them voluntary consent and legitimacy, and in the same At that time the group gave its orders to the armed private organization to strike the opponents with an iron fist.
On the other hand, a rebel movement collected about 22 million signatures that were against Morsi’s continuation of his rule, and the roaring protests took place on June 30 in every inch of the land of Egypt, bringing a new revolution to the list of Egyptians revolutions, the revolution of a people protected by the army.