Humanism … Humanity without a sky

“Oh man, know yourself and know your Lord.”(1)The position of divinity is not known unless a person knows himself. When ignorance takes the place of knowledge, man denies his Creator, Glory to Him. Einstein: “Man is a part of the whole we call the universe, and it is a limited part in time and space. He experiences himself, his thoughts and his feelings as something separate from the rest, and it is a kind of optical illusion of his consciousness; this delusion is a kind of prison. ” In an attempt to understand this prison in which man has locked himself up, the book “Humanism: A Critical Analytical Study of the Foundations and Roots,” written by Muhammad Hadi Talati,(2) In eight chapters he deals with a loose concept of “humanism” or “humanism” in terms of its origin and development, historical and philosophical dimensions and critical visions.

“Humanism,” in spite of its attractive statements and the propaganda raised about it, separates man from the universe, and neglects his most important existential questions, to affirm the centrality of the earthly and everyday meaning of human existence. Therefore, many of its contemporary manifestations were coupled with secularism and atheism, and as one of its philosophers Raymond Tallis put it, “Humanism, in all its merits, still has a philosophy that can compete deeply with the religious beliefs it seeks. to expel. ” It lacks depth and clarity, and is not about man’s spiritual aspirations.

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The concept of “humanism” or “humanism” is one of the innovative vocabulary in the nineteenth century AD, and the Germans were probably the first to create the term “humanism” in 1808, referring to ancient Greek and Latin literature, and this literature used the word with reference to moral aspects, meaning love for people, but the term evolved to refer to the humanities.

By the nineteenth century, the concept of “humanism” had moved away from its ancient customs, becoming a complete and general concept that expressed a kind of special belonging to man, so there are many schools that look at it, and deal with it according to One concept. , and when man became a criterion for thinking, secularism benefited from this transformation, and the concept of “secular humanism” appeared, which sought to accommodate all dimensions of human life.

There were tendencies in the European Renaissance to give a religious character to the role of man in daily everyday life, and they justified it by the fact that religion was exposed to matters affecting the worldly life of man. John Calvin ”, while English. thinkers such as “Jean Colt” and “Sir Thomas More” focused on the role of religion in the reformation of man from within, and they sought to reconcile Christianity with the humanism inspired by the ancient Greek philosophers.

But with the sixteenth century AD, humanism gradually began to move away from religious reformist views, with the interest in studying law in France, and with the crystallization of a legal system based on ancient Roman law, the Renaissance man according to the intellectuals defined. and philosophical foundations and systems of Aristotle and Plato, and in that The era became a tyrannical idea of ​​the centrality of man, and metaphysical or metaphysical concepts were removed from the circle of the mind, and “Francis Bacon” was one of the first philosophers of that direction, and he sharply criticized the Aristotelian tendency which at that time dominated the European mind, and put forward the concept of “the four idols.”(3) the Four Idols who captured the human conscience, leaving a wrong impact on his understanding and perception of the world.

With the philosopher “Descartes” and his approach to skepticism, the mind gradually separated from the invisible or metaphysics, so that the mind became materialistic and mundane, and the Cartesian skepticism approach played a role in consolidating the concept of humanism, so he took what we might call “the theology of the mind” expanding and seeking to control the mind and soul in the West This was reflected in the concept of humanism and its philosophies, which became subject to intense secular influence. The book mentions that “Descartes” mentioned the existential evidence to prove the existence of God, but at the same time he is working to remove the church’s work from the field of rational knowledge.

After Descartes, humanism began to focus on the mind as the only source of knowledge, and a series of principles were found that reinforced this tendency With the centrality of man in the universe, and the human self became the center of science, and they saw that experience is the most important element in human knowledge, therefore they rejected the invisible, did not accept the concept of instinct and saw that man is capable of attaining certainty without the need for preconceived ideas and perceptions.

Lighting .. a new journey

The eighteenth century AD was known as the Age of Enlightenment in European history, so interest in the mind was overwhelming, and man became a central subject in studies and interests, and the exaggerated mental tendency appeared to remove everything that stood in the way of man. The anti-religious spirit is one of the hallmarks of humanism thereafter, as it approached atheism, after humanity was considered an end in itself, so Auguste Comte spoke about atheistic humanism, the invisible rejection and the existence of God denies, and he saw that the author of religion is man, and “Comte” worked to stabilize the foundations of the religion of mankind in its various philosophical, political, and social dimensions.

In fact, the atheistic humanists of today, including the Marxists, have denied all that is transcendent, replacing the Creator, Glory to Him, with man, thus laying the foundation for man’s alienation from himself that prevents development. , and if he wants to choose a religion for himself, the founder of that religion must be man. ”

The book “Humanism: A Critical Analytical Study of the Foundations and Roots” indicates that contemporary humanism is not too religious or atheistic, but is excessively secular, and that it is almost impossible to separate humanism and secularism in Western culture. , as it is extremely complex. The establishment of humanism and secularism simultaneously, and secular humanism clearly defined its purpose, namely to achieve earthly happiness, or the building of an earthly paradise. Rather, it can identify and harmonize with various beliefs and ideas, and its original purpose is to provide worldly happiness to man. ” However, secular humanism is more compatible with atheism than with religion, so secularism has contributed to its penetration into the fabric of Western societies.

1- A phrase mentioned by Ibn al-Qayyim in his book “The Runways of the Walkers”
2- Translation by Hassan Ali Matar, issued by the Islamic Center for Strategic Studies, in 2022 in 340 pages
3- The four idols are: “tribal idols” associated with a person’s ethnic affiliation, “cave idols” which dominate the mood of individuals, “market idols” which dominate the words and concepts used in people’s daily transactions are used, and “theatrical idols,” which are theories that creep into our minds through philosophical judgments.

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