How did Arab scholars and the Egyptian nun learn the secrets of the hieroglyphic language?

Historians and archaeologists differ on the day the Rosetta Stone was discovered, but they confirm that mid-July is the month in which the Rosetta Stone was discovered, when a French engineer, Pierre Francois Javier Bouchard, discovered the stone at Julien in July 1799. Bershid discovered. Castle, and displays the Rosetta Stone. Since June 1802 in the British Museum contains a large black basalt stone with a length of 115 cm, a width of 72 cm and a thickness of 11 cm, two languages ​​written in three lines, and the two languages ​​are the ancient Egyptian language and the Greek language. It is the stone by which Champollion could decipher hieroglyphic symbols.

Archaeological expert Sherif Shaaban assures Al-Ahram Gate that the interest in Egyptology and the ancient Egyptian language was in the hands of the Egyptians themselves, as Prince Kha Em Wast was a source of inspiration for many stories and legends in the late era as’ a role model and a supreme example in the preservation of the heritage and monuments of ancestors, including the language hieroglyphs.

Sharif Shaaban claims that some mistakenly believe that the first attempt to decipher the ancient Egyptian language came into the hands of the Frenchman Francois Champollion in 1822 when he succeeded in deciphering the Rosetta stone, based on the studies of the Swede Johann David Ackerblad and the Englishman. Thomas Young, but in reality it preceded Champollion’s efforts. Several successful attempts by some Arabs in the Middle Ages were interested in ancient antiquities and their sciences, unlike what is commonly neglected, as it paved the way for Champollion to successfully complete those studies.

The Arabs paid great attention to hieroglyphic writing, especially chemists, because they believed that the inscriptions of that language contained the secrets of chemistry and the transformation of ordinary metals into precious metals. His books “Unsolving Symbols and Keys to Treasures” and “What Happens in the Science of Balance “included attempts to read some hieroglyphic symbols.

He was followed by the Egyptian scientist “Ayub bin Maslama”, who accompanied the caliph al-Ma’mun during his visit to Egypt, and it was reported that he could read some ancient Egyptian inscriptions.

Sharif Shaaban claims that Ibn Wahshiyyah al-Nabati of the people of Iraq, who lived in the ninth century, published the book “The Sun of the Suns and the Moon of the Moons in Uncovering the Symbols of the Harmseh and its Mysteries and Secrets” wrote. and the manuscript “Shouq Al-Mustam fi fi’l-Sharq al-Awsat” where he discovered that the hieroglyphic symbols are phonetic symbols and analyzed many of them, and the Austrian orientalist Joseph Hemerfon translated that manuscript into English and into London. published in 1806, 16 years before the discovery of Champollion.

We also know the Iraqi chemist “Abu al-Qasim al-Iraqi al-Masri” who lived between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and who wrote “The Seven Provinces”, which included copies of some ancient Egyptian texts, and also included a table. of the Barbawi letters (ie hieroglyphs) whose reading of some of them was correct, in addition to The contributions of Ibn al-Durayhem in his book “Miftah al-Kunuz fi clarification of the Marmouz” and Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi in his book ” Risala al-Kindi in Extracting the Ma’ami ”in revealing the secrets of hieroglyphic writing and deciphering the ancient Egyptian language.

It is considered Dhu al-Nun al-Masry, one of the most important Egyptian scientists in the era of the Abbasid state who had many in ancient sciences. The scholar and ascetic (Dhul-Noon al-Masry), who lived in the eighth century AD had, had a long history in Egyptian secrets, and all sources referred to him as one of the jurist Modernists and imams of Sufism in Egypt.

Dhu al-Nun al-Masri was very interested in antiquities and he wrote many important works related to the ancient Egyptian language.

His real name is Thawban bin Ibrahim, his nickname is “Abu al-Fayd” and his nickname is “Dhul-Nun” the Egyptian. He was born in Akhmim, Egypt in the year 796 AD. His upbringing in the Akhmim region played a role in his association with the temples of ancient Egypt, which he regarded as the legacy of the ancient people, and he was interested in trying to read the inscriptions and talismans on the walls in the extent to which he succeeded. in deciphering most of the hieroglyphic inscriptions and wrote a very important book in which he mentions his efforts, the book “Solution” Symbols and the Innocence of Numbers in Revealing the Origin of Languages ​​and Pens, “which studies of included many ancient writings, including hieroglyphs, with a mention of their phonetic value from his point of view.

Sherif Shaaban added that all this indicates that the Egyptian Dhul-Noun preceded the French scientist François Champollion in attempts to decipher the hieroglyphic writing by more than a thousand years.He was buried in the tombs of the people of Al- Ma’afr in Giza.

It is noteworthy that Google currently provides the reading and study of the hieroglyphic language, and the year 2015 witnessed the launch of the Center for Font Studies at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, to disseminate knowledge of the ancient Egyptian language, in addition to the website “Hieroglyphs Step by Step “in collaboration with the Department of Information Technology, which is the first interactive website To teach the ancient Egyptian language, it is aimed at university students, amateurs and those interested in the ancient Egyptian language at all levels. The site contains scientific material in both Arabic and English, and it is a long-term project, where the scientific content is constantly enriched, whether in the educational lessons and the tests attached to it, the number of words in the dictionary, or examples of artifacts .

Pharaonic writings and the Rosetta Stone

Pharaonic writings and the Rosetta StonePharaonic writings and the Rosetta Stone

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