Cyberspace.. Conflict of values ​​and interests

Rapid technological innovations and operational innovation in cyberspace have turned into an influential phenomenon in the national power structure of nation-states, and the emergence of cyberspace therefore not only creates challenges, but also provides opportunities for countries, especially developing countries. And so; Rapid technological developments and innovative ideas are constantly changing and reshaping this virtual world; So it is dynamic, and the degree of change in it is large and dramatic. For example, about three decades ago wireless communication in public places was unthinkable, today we are living how the introduction of wireless network has raised the level of cyberspace to another height in terms of efficiency, comfort, fluidity and ease of communication and communication . However, it also presents a new set of threats and challenges. The latest invention of quantum computing (a theoretical computer model in which data and computer processes are processed by “quantum laws”) is a hundred million times faster than existing computers. Although it offers much higher computing power, hackers can also use the same device to hack securities in a faster way; In doing so, the cybersecurity landscape is changing to a great extent.
This dynamic of cyberspace now requires an assessment of areas of the national cyber strategies of many countries.
The most common challenges in formulating cyber strategies are determined by several reasons, including but not limited to: the lack of a clear vision of electronic affairs at the national level, so that most developing countries do not have any coherent national policy regarding their cyberspace does not have, as well as the heavy dependence on devices Imported programs, as many countries rely on the import of computer technologies and technologies from advanced countries in this field and use them in their vital sectors such as defense, security and economic and government financial institutions. dependence poses a serious threat to the national security of countries.
Another reason is the insufficient budget allocation for cyber operations, due to the reluctance of some governments not to give sufficient funds to organizations “bodies” and institutions related to cyber issues, due to a lack of understanding or to adequately awareness of the seriousness and importance of this area at the national level and the role of cyber security in the process Protect systems, networks and programs against digital attacks In light of the emergence of a new digital landscape, continuous cooperation is strengthened to create new monitor threats.
Add to this the lack of an appropriate national structure to deal with cyber conflicts, as some countries do not have any specialized and integrated national institute/centre that can manage and oversee cyber issues and respond to cyber security and improve information security in all its forms. , not to mention the absence of an ongoing cybersecurity culture within government agencies. The lax bureaucracy in some third world countries, as most of those developing countries do not have an organized policy to monitor threats to their vital infrastructure such as banks, telecommunication networks, their financial transactions and their various vital sectors, as it appears that some governments of developing countries are reluctant to initiate any radical change in policy. This trend is reinforced by the fact that it is difficult to adopt rapidly changing technologies in time and the lack of research and development initiatives for local digital products with the absence of research, studies and development centers in many developing countries without benefiting from the available expertise.
Based on this data, it can be said that it is very difficult to have modern, developed and prosperous countries without finding solutions that overcome the problems mentioned in the above points, and without a reliable and strong system to ensure the safety of their cyberspace and space. The latter represents at the same time a great, promising and pioneering opportunity without losing sight of its dark and dangerous side, which must be managed correctly, thoughtfully and efficiently.
How not? Most of the various developed countries’ infrastructure is based on cyberspace, which is based on information technology and communication technology, in all areas; Industrial, military, security, energy, water, health, transport system, banking sector, financial and government institutions, until it became an integral part of national security, and the form, techniques and methods of wars changed due to the change in the nature of its threats and damage to the important and strategic institutions and centers of countries.
Some countries and other parties may view cyberspace from a different perspective, some see it as a business and investment opportunity, or a way of self-expression, while others see it as a threat to their national security, while there are many examples of technology is. used for malicious purposes, experiences also tell us that affordable access to communication technologies and global information flows can be a force for economic and technological progress and informational and technological superiority.
The concept of cyber power will have a clear impact on international politics and global conflict in the coming years in the face of an increasing arms race in the cyber field, as experts strongly suggest that in the future there will be something like a global cyber catastrophe, which can change attitudes towards cyber security in general and towards international cooperation What is needed to secure and legitimize this space, which means the need to strive to protect information and communication technology systems and infrastructure, and work towards the readiness of raise institutions in the public and private sectors to confront cyber attacks, and raise awareness about the various threats in this field.
And we must not forget in this context the fierce competition to form a management of the cyberspace through the development of standards governing this space, which represents a continuation of the policies and strategies of foreign countries that have been applied to it, which led to the rise of the “Great Game” on the Internet among the countries of the Five Eyes Alliance (the United States and the United Kingdom Australia, Canada and New Zealand) and the Sino-Russian bloc (China and Russia) .The latter is a large and powerful cyber force, as well as private sector organizations and pioneering cyber entrepreneurs, whose leadership plays an essential role in reinforcing global normative preferences for shaping and governing cyberspace and even those whose companies seeks to centralize their control over data collection, distribution or disposal as a central bank for data and information.
However, each camp defends a set of normative preferences that are inherently incompatible with the other; This has led to a growing competition for dominance in describing and promoting cyberspace standards.
Despite the efforts made in issues of cyberspace governance and the development of global standards for state behavior in this context, especially in the last decade, although the first decade of the twenty-first century has shown limited efforts aimed at reach an international agreement on cyberspace. management, the first decade observed However, the contentious and competitive nature of building global cyber standards suggests that although there are complex legal and technical issues, the development of cyber standards is still inherently a conflict of values, ideologies and interests, or As Carl von Clausewitz says war “is merely a continuation of politics by other means”.
Let us remember that industrialized nations do not seek to formulate regulatory standards in cyberspace in a neutral way for the sake of some abstract public good, but rather seek to extend their preferences, calculations, and ideological values ​​and their economic and advance security interests firstly there is even a belief that the cyberspace should be freed from The intervention and dictatorship of governments, for fear that the user may one day lose access to it in light of the indications that the need for Internet censorship increases with the increase in the number of users in the future.. Perhaps this is what Internet activist John Perry Barlow called to address the industrial governments of the world and said: “You giants From flesh and steel I come from cyberspace, from the home of new think, I ask. the past in the name of the future to go away and leave us in peace, you are no longer welcome among us, you have no sovereignty where we meet.”

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