It is natural for any human society, whether it is a family, institution, village, city or state, to have a system that manages the affairs of individuals within it, and that the effectiveness of this system depends on its ability to to control them. behavior in accordance with the legal rules and moral controls determined by the collective mind of the community. Which is labeled as authority or sovereignty (1).
The concept of power is closely related to manifestations of oppression, violence, influence, dominance and control, especially after the state has monopolized the right to exercise it in society. He has the act of dominance and dominance, and in this context we find that Max Weber, a German sociologist (1864) – (1920) strove to integrate the concept of power with another concept that is no less important than this, that is the concept of legitimacy (2) , which works to legitimize the actions and practices of power, making decisions the most authoritarian and dominance accepted and recognized by all members of society (3).
Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002), the contemporary French sociologist, belongs to what is known as critical sociology to which he devoted his scientific life. The analysis that Bourdieu proposes comes after Marxist thought has exhausted its capacity to absorb the development of European societies and the multiplicity and complexity of methods of domination. For him, sociology was an effective and scientifically credible tool to establish justice and social equality (4).
In the seventies of the last century, Pierre Bourdieu introduced the concept of symbolic violence through his study and analysis of the concept of power and dominance, which is related to the production of symbolic capital that practices violence through it as a form of privilege and influence. by the ruling society against its members, and this violence is more dangerous than violence The Somatic Physical According to Bourdieu. But the question that arises for us in this article, what is symbolic violence? What are the mechanisms of its formation? How does he control society?
The concept of symbolic violence
Violence is not considered a new phenomenon born today or yesterday, but rather it is a phenomenon rooted in the depths of human history until it reaches the beginning of human existence on this simple face, and the story of Cain and Abel is the most prominent example of this, since the earth at the time witnessed the first murder known to human history. Violence was used in them (5).
Linguistically, violence is defined as every word or action against compassion, kindness and indulgence, an act that embodies physical energy or force in material harm to another person. Technically, it is any aggressive behavior that tends to the illegal use of force or threat with the intention of harming others, and force is associated with coercion, command and restriction, and it is the opposite of kindness, because it is a form of unlawfully exerted force with the intention of subjugating one party to the will of another party. Despite the multiplicity of factors that lead to violence, its basic premise is the aggressive instinct of varying strength from one person to another, an instinct whose expression is influenced by multiple circumstances, including the prevailing culture. Therefore, violence does not usually come from an individual. unless accompanied by negative thoughts and feelings that he relies on to justify his aggression. And no matter how different the motives, means, ends and results are, they all refer to one content, which is violence aimed at harming oneself or others (6).
Therefore, we can consider violence as the most intense social phenomenon inherent in human society, even the most ambiguous and disturbing, due to the negative effects it creates on the individual and societal level as a whole.
Throughout humanity, violence has taken multiple and indirect forms, hidden and public, from physical violence in its simplest and most instinctive form through the use of muscle power in defense or grievance, or even to satisfy the human instinct of victory, to symbolic violence that has taken various paths, methods and manifestations that are no less dangerous than Physical violence, to include all forms of non-material violence that harms the other, whether through speech, language or various expressive forms (7), or it is , as Bourdieu expresses it, the imposition of meanings practiced by social actors of a priest, a saint, a preacher, a teacher, an analyst or a doctor Psychological, or political, and others (8 ).
Families and schools are spaces for the consolidation and reproduction of class and inequality resulting from the existence of a dominant class and a dominated class
This means that there are two types of violence: the first is physical violence which involves harming others physically, materially and organically. The second is experienced symbolic violence through language, hegemony, dominant ideologies and ideas. And it is also through insults, slander, swearing, media and spiritual violence (9).
The concept of symbolic violence constitutes one of Bourdieu’s most brilliant and important intellectual discoveries, and represents the cornerstone of his intellectual production (10). coercion” (11) by forcing the rulers in society to their way of thinking, expression and perception, which is more appropriate to their interests, and is manifested in value, emotional, moral and cultural practices that depend on symbols as instruments of control and dominance such as language, image, signs, semantics and meanings. This violence often manifests itself in the light of symbolic moral practice, and symbolic authority is an invisible authority, which cannot be embodied on the basis of social reality unless it recognized, submitted to and practiced by members of society. It is the authority to construct reality that seeks to establish a cognitive system. and reproduce the social system (12). Thus, “symbolic violence” is a silent, hidden sleep, invisible and imperceptible even to its victims. This is one of the most important concepts that reached Pierre Bourdieu’s early proposals in 1972.
Bourdieu concludes by considering the symbolic power, in terms of the ability to shape the given through verbal expressions, and in terms of the ability to explain and convince, and to approve or transform the vision of the world , and then it is the ability to transform influence in the world thanks to its ability to mobilize, and it is an ability that he sees Bourdieu is a “magic net”, and symbolic power only works if it is recognized, and it takes place thanks to a certain relationship that connects the one who exercises power with the one who submits to it, that is to say it is determined by the structure of the field in which the belief is confirmed and reproduced (13).
Bourdieu sees that any influence based on symbolic violence or any influence succeeds in imposing certain connotations, and in imposing them as legitimate connotations, obscures the power relations that root its power, adds its own specific power to this power relations, i.e. specific symbolic character (14).
Finally, we can say that symbolic violence is “the violence that is soft, imperceptible and invisible to its victims themselves, which is exercised in its essence through purely symbolic methods of communication and knowledge, or more specifically through ignorance and recognition, or at least through passion” (15). That is, it is a special type of general violence, sometimes called disguised or hidden violence, or even hidden violence. It is a method aimed at the general public, as opposed to physical or direct violence, the purpose of which is specific. Symbolic violence takes many forms and patterns which in their entirety constitute signs or symbols of indirect confrontation Where the perpetrators deliberately hide without appearing in public (16).
Bourdieu believed that social relations, regardless of their field or field, are linked to the mechanisms of the structure of competition, dominance and conflict. These mechanisms have become well established and rooted in individuals through the process of socialization. Individuals in turn produce these in an unconscious way as norms, values and standards. The family and the school are spaces for the consolidation and reproduction of class and inequality resulting from the existence of a dominant class, and a dominated class, where the institutions of the state, the family and the education system contribute to the practice of symbolic violence against the social actors associated with it. It is noted that many of the mechanisms of competition and control are transmitted from one generation to another through the outlets of education, media and culture in a hidden, symbolic form (17).
In formulating his theory of symbolic violence, Bourdieu relied on several concepts that are intertwined with their importance to give strength to systematic research as the analytical tools related to a global strategy based on an intellectual project that aims to build and study the mechanisms. mechanisms and laws of functioning of the structure of the social world, which are as follows: , symbolic power, symbolic capital that go together to produce the concept of symbolic violence.
The social system is defined as “a group of people and common activities characterized by their mutual relations with a degree of stability and continuity. Example: A married couple living in a family is a social system. We can also say that “a pattern of relationships between a group of elements, and it is seen as having properties related to it and generated by its existence, different from the properties of other systems, and the system is also seen as having a self-possession potential towards equilibrium, and therefore the analysis of patterns means the analysis of the mechanisms that achieve and maintain balance, whether internal or external. The social structure therefore consists of a group of systems which are considered as main social systems: (the ecological system, the social or kinship system, the political system, the economic system, the cultural system), and the most important social systems on their turn. consists of a group of sub-forms (18).
As for symbolic authority: a philosophical concept that appeared in Bourdieu and is of course completely opposed to tangible material authority. Bourdieu tried to reveal the concept of symbolism hidden or underlying social issues, through its personification in the hidden ideologies and movements behind its structure and the nature of symbolic relations, through the confiscation and appropriation of social and public spaces and its attempt to stifle and legalize. liberties, uprisings and even revolutions (19). According to Bourdieu, power is not something located somewhere, but rather a system of interwoven relationships, and we find that the entire structure of the social world must be considered in order to understand the mechanisms of dominance and control. Therefore, according to Bourdieu, power is a complex system that penetrates through precise and effective mechanisms that control the general structure of that system all the relations and bonds that move and interact internally (20). The symbolic authority is a subordinate authority, representing a form of other authority, but it has supernatural powers which compel the one governed by it to submit to it and acknowledge it without exerting great energy to control, in addition to investing the symbolic capitals in its discourses that it works to maintain its power within the blackened classes, where symbolic power is always based on wordplay and invisibility, and it can only achieve its desired effects through the collaboration it has of the majority of individuals must receive, for whom this fact seems illusory and does not recognize Bourdieu writes about symbolic power that “symbolic power is an invisible power that can only be exercised with the complicity of those who refuse to recognize that they are subject to it or even exercise it” (21).