The great position of the German philosopher Martin Heidegger lies in that sudden awakening and the great turn he made in the history of philosophy, by overturning the foundational project of previous philosophies, which deviated from their main task of answering the question of the to disguise true existence. This question was neglected by all philosophies before Heidegger and it continued to revolve in a vicious circle of meanings, when it went to objective and purely subjective facts, and tried to shed light on concepts such as essence, thought and matter, and the most importantly forgotten question that connects us with the changing world, which is the question of human existence. The world has no meaning without man, and man has no meaning without this world. Here lies the genius of the Heideggerian proposal in the demolition and construction, when he reconstructed philosophy on the crumbling ruins. To begin the task of explicit philosophy in the search for what touches us personally, and what touches us to the core, affects our being.
In a lecture Heidegger gave in Normandy, France in 1955,
Heidegger poses a question in the form of a question. By what criterion does philosophy become a criterion for questioning?
Philosophy searches for what is, because existence gathers what is from where it is.
So the question becomes: What is there in terms of that? Then thought becomes philosophy, and philosophy becomes the response to the call of that being.
What the external world of things and objects contains are only manifestations of existence, and existence only exists through the interaction of man with the world with his conscious self and his various emotional states, so that this world is a field becomes for human attention and its available capacities. Therefore, we can only come close to a true conception of existence through that basic unity between subjective experience and the objective world as one entity. Through this, only Heidegger corrected the course of philosophy and settled its historical conflict over the most important dialectic that kept many busy; This is the dialectic of subject and subject.
Heidegger published the book “Being and Time” in 1927 and dedicated it to his teacher Husserl, who was influenced by his phenological approach. In this book, Heidegger established an ontology
Existentialism is its content, and phenology is its approach to explaining the meaning of existence. In the book “Being and Time” Martin Heidegger analyzes man, and this analysis is the path that leads to the understanding of existence itself. Man is not a self-knowing or isolated person, who is aware of a certain existence, or is not aware of it. Rather, man first perceives the world in his direct experiences and interests, and our experience is not entirely logical or scientific. our sense therefore also plays a major role in explaining the world. Man is born into a world of fleeting interests, and man is a caring being. Worry is the determining factor for human existence. Worry is of two types in the world. A practical interest through the use of tools, or means in the ecological world, and a personal interest through its relationship to society and the collective world.
Therefore man lies in the reality of existence, so in his outward existence he must be a guardian of existence, and the existing things must appear to him in their essence. Existent is the specific thing that has a fixed nature such as inanimate matter, plants and animals. As for existence, it is a characteristic of conscious existence, specifically man, and he is aware of his existence, and this existence is characterized by movement, becoming and awareness. Man is equal in existence to his essence, and therefore he alone has a substantial existence. Other things exist, such as a rock, a tree or an animal, but they do not have a substantial existence, in which they aware of their being and existence. This essential existence of man means that man is distinguished for his existence by standing open in the discovery of existence. The process of understanding existence begins with understanding man within his temporal stage, and this will reveal the nature of existence or being as an ontology of man.
Heidegger deals with a basic concept in his book “Being and Time”, which is Dasein, which is a German term composed of two words meaning / to be there / or to be there / and this indicates that for Heidegger to be a process that refers to human existence in the world. Man is the only being that exists when he is born, he is destined from his first moment to death, and just as everything has its own time, man also has his own time in existence, and this being is defined as a presence through time, and man is in motion towards death, what about It can surprise him with every leap in life that is imposed by his decisions, choices and the circumstances around him. Dasein is a being that understands itself as a transitory and changing entity, trying to find its true self, and to reach its free and deep existence within this time, but this self reveals to us a constantly anxious nature, when it realizes its finitude. in the time that reveals nothing or death before him. Dasein becomes aware of itself (as a singular I), inserts the understanding of existence into the core of its own existence and places itself in constant questioning. And the Dasein-man is not a fixed existence, but is always a project of continuous existence, in interaction with the world, but not the objective, material or ideal world, but the world that Heidegger intended, is the interaction of the subject with time, space and things, it is the world revealed to him and manifested in his own world as interaction and interest The field in which human life revolves consists of awareness, perception, emotion and accumulated experiences. Therefore his is time, and time is the presence of existence as a reality to be experienced and lived.
Through the states of anxiety in which man suffers and suffers, and through that fundamental anxiety which makes us feel the finitude of our existence before the death that awaits us, and within the scope of our thinking, we are convinced of the futility of life, and that our life is nothing.
The real existence and the false existence
It is the Dasein man who always seeks his authentic and unique existence in the world, separated from the herd in the prevailing judgments and opinions, and occupied by cosmic and fatal questions. This person transcends the trivialities and shallowness of life, and feels his constant pain through the suffering of others. Dasein lives an authentic and rooted entity in this existence, when he is really aware of death, his subconscious intuition leads him to imagine his death in the future at that moment when he is nothing, so he worries and tries to consolidate its original existence in its limited time. He does not fall into idle talk, gossip and curiosity, and he is the one who realizes himself as project and possibility. In the past, its essential existence lies temporarily in the future.
According to Heidegger, alienation stems from the false existence of man, who falls into other people’s projects and is simply a number in a group. Alienation is the concealment of the possibilities of active existence, including the avoidance of thinking about death, which keeps a person within the scope of a false existence. Therefore, a person who thinks like others thinks and speaks like them speaking, usually idle in thought and limited in horizon and vision, he always flees from this existential anxiety that reminds him of death, through gossip The love of curiosity and ridicule of others, and it remains in a cycle of vanity and constant vulgarity , even at the level of language that loses its value and function, so that its existence becomes merely a display or not an existence according to Heidegger’s expression. The possibilities of real existence are a solid wall that supports and lifts fragile life so as not to fall into shallowness, and one of the pillars of this wall is the thought of death and the possibility that it can happen at any time .He can wake up at any time. moment.
Nothing and anxiety
Anxiety reveals nothingness, and anxiety here is not pathological anxiety, or fear of something specific. A person who is afraid is always bound to the thing he is afraid of, so he lacks security in his relationship with others and therefore lacks freedom. The concern here is not about anything in particular, nor about anything. The anxiety here is a self-existence and freedom seeking itself. Just as anxiety reveals nothingness and unmasks it, nothingness reveals itself in anxiety and it manifests itself in the individual and reveals that free self in the face of its destiny, and it carries on its back the burdens of responsibility and the multiplicity of options, so it becomes concerned when the possibilities available to achieve itself in the reality of human existence are withheld. It has situations and circumstances that limit its existence. The nothingness according to Heidegger is within the substance of existence and permeates it, so we cannot reach a solution to the problem of existence except by confronting the nothingness. But nothing, according to Heidegger, is not abstract nothing, but rather the impossibility that the individual faces, because sometimes nothing is that existence that escapes from man, because pain is the absence of pleasure, and darkness is the absence of light, and all things that do not exist in the moment, are nothing. Immediacy is the realization of the concrete presence in one’s rank.
Through the states of anxiety in which man suffers and suffers, and through that fundamental anxiety which makes us feel the finitude of our existence before the death that awaits us, and within the scope of our thinking, we are convinced of the futility of life, and that our life is nothing. The authentic self is in the face of nothingness through this anxiety, so it always seeks to reach that finite immediacy in time, and the realization of this existence according to Heidegger is authentic, and accepts under no circumstances to delay, but it must always and every time starting from (here … and now). So nothing reveals in the being when this being is completely destabilized to escape or slip out of the human.
Anxiety emerges in its clearest form when the night of nothing illuminates the life of a person who is alone in an accident that brought him into this world, so that the self realizes that it is mortal, that it is a reality like other facts and that it is part of a fleeting concern. This self inhabited by loneliness and alienation, when all beings escape from it, is possessed by a nihilistic tendency that makes it transcend and transcend every existing being As a thought and a history of entities. Only then does the subject begin to ask the most important and profound question about the meaning of Being.
Why was there an existence?
Didn’t it exist?