The Arab League and some Arab countries have abandoned the Palestinian cause, but the Arab peoples cling to their support

Pascal Boniface, the French thinker and reference on international affairs and world issues, including the Middle East, claims in his book “Understanding the World” that: “The League of Arab States, which includes 22 Arab countries, including Palestine, constantly calls for coordination among its countries, But these calls are rarely implemented. The call for a unified position among the Arab countries regarding Palestine or for the unity of positions among the countries of the region has become a resonant populist slogan used by the leaders of these countries is repeated, and perhaps it was no more than this in the past or in the present (p. 209).
Boniface, Director of the Institute for International and Strategic Relations at IRIS Graduate School in France and General Supervisor, Distinguished Lecturer at the Institute for European Studies at the University of Paris VIII, adds: “The European colonial countries betrayed the Arab leaders on more than one opportunity by making promises to them but not implementing them. This happened in the First World War and beyond, and it continues today through the rise of the United States to the leading role in this field after Britain and France.”
Boniface, who has written more than sixty books and research articles on global strategic issues and has translated his work from French into many languages, explains that “the Arab world and its people felt the greatest betrayal towards them by the colonial states when they Israel after the Second World War and recognized it, causing the Arab peoples to pay the price for the massacres committed by Europeans against European Jews during the World War.” (p. 210).
As a result of the creation of Israel, says Boniface, wars broke out between Israel and the Arabs in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, most of which ended in Israel’s favor. This is in addition to Israel’s war against Lebanon in 1982 and 2006 and against the Palestinian Gaza Strip in 2008, 2012 and 2014.
As a result of the war of 1967 and the rapid loss of the Arab side in it, the feeling of humiliation spread among the Arab peoples, but the war of 1973 softened the impact of the defeat of 1967. Decisions taken by Saudi Arabia under the leadership of the late King Faisal bin Abdulaziz in the oil matter contributed to raising Arab morale for a period before the assassination of King Faisal and the return of policies Negative to the atmosphere in the next stages.
The Palestinian issue, according to Boniface, in the eyes of people in the Arab world, “constitutes an element of unity and a continuation of caution against the fraud and hypocrisy of international promises and conferences that claim a desire for peace in the region and reach. of the former Western colonial countries and their ally and current leader, the United States, especially with regard to the removal and expansion of the Israeli occupation. in the Palestinian territories. (p. 211).
The author believes in this book that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia established a semi-undeclared and written alliance with Israel under the pretext of confronting the Islamic Republic of Iran. In addition, the United Arab Emirates and the Kingdom of Bahrain established diplomatic relations with Israel without Israel making any concessions to them regarding the Palestinian cause, which is supposed to be the cause of all Arabs. So is Sudan under the command of a military junta in the hope of removing US and international economic sanctions against it. Former US President Donald Trump has also promised that America will recognize Morocco’s authority over Western Sahara in 2020 if it normalizes the Kingdom of Morocco with Israel. All this led to the Palestinians’ further frustration that they were left without the promises made to them regarding the establishment of a Palestinian state and Israeli withdrawals from their conquered lands.
Despite this, says Boniface, the Palestinian cause remains sacred to the Arab peoples and masses, but the Arab world remains divided and weak, and the Middle East remains the most unstable region from a strategic point of view. (214).
At the beginning of his book he asks the question: What world do we live in?
The author believes that the main shift in the world of foreign relations is the transition of the world from a unilateral leadership to a multi-leadership so that the United States is no longer the international authority capable of making all political and military decisions against not taking the rest. of the world on its own. It has expanded its strategic influence in the world beyond what it can handle and is consequently constrained in a way that it was not constrained in the previous two decades of the twenty-first century.
According to Boniface, the decline in American political and economic influence in the world has led to the rise of the roles of other countries such as China, Russia, the European Community, Japan and India. In the globalized world, no power is able to impose its will on the world. When former US President Donald Trump addressed his audience and said, “Make America Great Again,” he was aware that the United States a part of his unilateral influence in the world.
However, the author also points out that the world has not become fully and comprehensively multipolar, since the United States has not lost its main military position despite the mistakes made by President George Bush Jr. (in Iraq) and Donald Trump made in the Middle East. in general.
Boniface also believes that the global crisis of the Corona epidemic may have contributed to the promotion of the emergence and introduction of a multipolar world focused on cooperation in the face of humanitarian disasters.
The book talks in the different parts of the most important international political issues in the different regions of the world. It starts with the European Union, the European Community’s projects, and the union’s relationship with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and it creates the possibility of establishing a common European defense group, and points to the crises that the European Community faced. and face.
Then he turns to the subject of the United States of America and raises the question of its hegemony over the rest of the world politically and economically, and what are the determinants of that hegemony, and then deals with the issues of the Asian continent, with a particular focus on China, Japan and India.
In the ninth chapter of the second section, Boniface presents the Russian issue and its interactions, and the issue of Moscow’s restoration of its political, economic and military influence in the world, pointing to the persistence of weaknesses in the current Russian system.
The tenth section of the book deals with the issues of Latin America and the end of the dominance of military dictatorships on the regimes of that continent, focusing in its presentation of the situation on the two largest countries in that continent: Mexico and Brazil .
As we indicated at the beginning of this review, the twelfth section related to crises and conflicts in the Arab world and the Palestinian issue is perhaps the most important for the Arab reader, especially since Boniface’s analyzes therein are objective and impartial regarding of the violations of Israel and its allies in Palestine.
In the summary of the book, entitled: “Will the world progress?” The author says that the development of information technology has made people more open to the abuses committed by their leaders in most parts of the world.
He also believes that the entry of China and Russia into the arena of global economic and political pluralism is a positive thing, unlike what other parties see in the leaderships of the Western world linked to the current American leadership.
Many see some parties in the world trying to disrupt any development of cooperation between the countries of the world in the economic and humanitarian field by creating wars and escalating them in the field and in the media.
Boniface undoubtedly does not belong to this escalating trend.
This book is very useful scientifically in addition to including bold and deep views regarding world issues in general, especially the Palestinian issue and the current poor conditions of the Arab world. (as the title suggests) in a concise and straightforward manner for undergraduate students. students entering these fields and subjects for the first time or wishing to specialize in them.
Perhaps the easy and direct method that Boniface uses in this book is one of the best university educational methods. It is no wonder that this author reached the highest university educational centers in France and Europe and was respected by all the universities of the world. and the professors in his field.
Pascal Boniface: «Comprendre le monde»
Armand Colin, Paris 2021
336 pages.

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