In the introduction to his 2006 book, Dr. Ayman Zuhri: “Egyptian society at the beginning of the twenty-first century experienced many social and economic transformations that the author tries to monitor in this book. This book is an attempt to communicate with the non-specialist reader Dr. Ayman Zuhri speaks to the growth rates of the mobile phone, where growth rates increase annually by 35% compared to 30% in the United Arab Emirates and 23% in China, and despite the recent era of Egypt with mobile phone , which does not exceed seven years did not – at the time – it is growing rapidly, since it rose The number of subscribers from 654 thousand subscribers in 1999 to more than six million subscribers at the moment, and Egyptians spend 6 billion pounds annually on mobile communications, and it is also expected that the number of mobile phone subscribers will reach ten million subscribers with the entry of a third company in the field of supply These services will increase the total expenditure of Egyptians to more than ten billion pounds d increase..
As for the content of the text messages that these channels offer, there is nothing wrong with it, because it is a mixture of sleeping and waking dreams, as well as flirting with national, political, football and emotional thoughts and trends, and regardless of course about grammatical and spelling errors, even religious channels depend for their funding (in part) on The return of these short messages, which are predominantly religious, and the incentive to send them over and over and resend them, is the religious motive..
It was 16 years ago – at the time of the publication of the book exposing the evils of technology – before (Social Media) crept up on us in its sweeping attack through its “fake” news, the most catchy term in the world of media and media now, according to a scientific study conducted by American researchers on the phenomenon The spread of fake news and content through tweets On the social networking site Twitter, three million people retweeted false news more than 4 million times, and the researchers have their study, referred to by the German “Deutsche Welle” website, on an analysis of the content of approximately 126,000 tweets. In English, published between 2006 and 2017, this study, which was supervised by researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and published in the journal Science, is the largest scientific study conducted on the spread of fake news and content through social media ..
The researchers concluded that fake content, be it text, video or image, has a distribution chance of more than 70% compared to the real one, in an attempt to contain fake news, and in ‘ an attempt to spread such news; Newly issued laws in several Arab and foreign countries prohibit the publication of fake news on social media pages, as a model: Article (19) of the draft law regulating the Egyptian press and media, which the newspaper, media outlet or website prohibited to publish news Fake, and the provisions of this article obliged individuals’ personal pages on social media sites, provided that the number of followers exceeds 5 thousand, and according to a study entitled “New applications to spread the phenomenon of fake news to limit”, published by the Future Center for Research and Advanced Studies, Germany announced the subjection of page managers involved in the spread of fake news for prosecution, as well as suing the site’s management. In April 2017, the government passed a bill penalizing social media companies. for spreading fake news with fines of up to 50 million euros..
In the absence of our awareness, we certainly do not realize the danger of fake news promoted by (the terrorist Brotherhood) and other Western entities and institutions that carry evil to Egypt, and we did not think that the study was a reference to the German Minister of Justice Heiko Maas, on the first (December) 2016, to The importance of implementing a law against “hate speech” and fake news on social networking sites, such as Facebook, which the site in January 2017 prompted a new application in Germany with the aim of verifying the authenticity of the news published on it, which limited the spread of the phenomenon after Officials alerted security to the seriousness of the matter through decisive steps to take.
Earlier in 2018, the government of former Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak managed to secure the support of a simple majority in parliament to pass the Anti-Fake News Bill, which imposes fines of up to 500,000 ringgit, approximately 123,000 dollars and imprisonment imposes a maximum of six years. The media, Nashwa Al-Ruwaini, indicated during one of the sessions within the Arab Media Forum in Dubai – a few years ago – which was titled “The Emergence of the False and the Fall of the Trusted “, that some countries, among led by the United Arab Emirates, introduce legislation to combat the news phenomenon. fabricated, quoted examples from the world; While media leaders in England called on the British House of Commons to address this phenomenon, and in France, the French Minister of Culture, Françoise Nyssen, said that legal action would be taken to stop the spread of fake news, with reference to the work of other countries, such as; The Philippines, Germany, Brazil and Malaysia, to combat this phenomenon through the framework of a law that controls it and punishes its promoters.
Perhaps fake news is not a product of the current era, given the origin of the term “Bascandy”, which is the closest historical model to a work that approximates the form of journalism as we know it today in terms of its role in spreading specifically fake news. He writes fragments of burning sonnets, against all candidates except those supported by the Medici, his benefactors, and hangs them on the monument of a bust known as the “Pasquino”, near Piazza Navona in Rome, whence the name “Bascondi” was later derived to describe the phenomenon. Its distribution expanded in those days, centered around handwritten clippings that carried outrageous, mostly false, news against celebrities.“.
I can point out here that the numbers and studies say: The Internet, through its non-news platforms, is the main source for young people to obtain and comment on news, thus forming their positions and directing their orientations. In Egypt, a recent statistic issued by the Egyptian Center for Public Opinion Research “Baseera” indicated. , that “65% of Egyptian youth between the ages of 18 and 35 do not read newspapers, 28% read them sometimes and only 7% always read them.”“.
According to a study issued by the Emirates Youth Council, titled “Youth News Sources”, social networking sites in the UAE were first with 42%, then TV channels with 23%, and radio came in the last position with only 4 %. study also indicated that “The majority of young people visit social networking sites for about five hours a day, and the situation of young people in the rest of the Arab countries and sources of knowledge and news is not much different from Egypt and the UAE; Where Facebook rules , rule Twitter, and boss Google“.
Fake news, gentlemen, is now more than ever the “plague of this age.” What laws have been introduced in an attempt to control that news, but the matter is not so easy, “In the end, in this cyberspace, with some simple user skills, it is possible to circumvent these laws“.
It is true that Cairo is trying to study the experiences of major countries in the light of such rumours; Since the issue is not recent, “since the beginning of journalism, great journalists in Egypt and the world have talked about exciting and false news that it is the most widespread, although less old than the current stage,” but it remains to noting that the Brotherhood and extremist entities are most interested in this arena, from During the use of these platforms to distort communities and recruit extremist elements, the issue of recruiting people from mosques ended a few years ago and recruitment operations took place inside closed chat rooms , and let us admit that the spread of a group of unreal topics, on the social media that has eaten everything, has become beyond lies To incomplete or incomplete topics, facts, ideas or news in the form of deadly poisons to publish.
Social media has become an arena that enjoys some chaos and randomness that eats the truth, exploiting the weakness of the current newspaper and even electronic newspapers, which has led to this huge proliferation of social media sites – especially with the emergence of generations of smart phones and tablets – to easy access to these sites. The devices are easy to carry and move around continuously and almost permanently with their owner, and the danger of the matter lies in the emergence of generations of children and young people who spend most of the day on social networking sites and cyberspace, to the extent that they cannot stay away and leave these sites for a few minutes, which has had a very bad impact on these generations, and it even comes to the destruction of the real lives of many of these addicts, the psychological and social consequences include withdrawal from social life, and the absence of parental control, due to the difficulty in constantly monitoring children through the screens they use.
And I think that the best solution to confront this phenomenon comes at two levels: “The first is the inauguration of laws, which is an old issue, since all laws that regulate journalistic work emphasize the need not to publish fake news , and the second level is education, or what we can call the term media education; that is, that We raise generations capable of sorting the wheat from the fat, which is an issue that needs a good education system has what allows the right to obtain information in the beginning, and also allows the right to think, not memorize and deaf; incomplete or untrue news, because the mind will discuss and reject it.
Finally, we must pay attention to the danger that social media users will have a sense of addiction to fake news, especially since the language of dialogue between him and others is absent, and in many cases the matter develops into a quarrel between him and others . his close friends and family members. The addict secretes a small amount of dopamine, which is the hormone responsible for happiness and satisfaction, when he receives a notification from one of his accounts on these sites, and with each notification that the addict reached, his brain gets excited, and the matter is repeated over time, leading to the person waiting for these notifications to get so much happiness, and it is certainly a false happiness that only leads to more cognitive diffusion that means is for our youth until they fall into the clutches of chaos, which have become like weapons of mass destruction that strike us in the kill.