All you need to know about X-ray | science and technology

What are X-rays?

The X-ray method has a long history. X-rays were discovered by chance, it is the penetration of the rays into the body, and we use them today with high-level digital quality when we perform an X-ray imaging process, where a short-wave beam emitted from the radiation source to penetrate the body and form an image on the X-ray film.

By means of x-rays we can photograph all the tissues and regions of the body Soft tissues absorb little radiation, such as: skin, muscles and fats, so that they appear to us in a dark color on the film, while hard tissues such as bone absorbs a high percentage of radiation and appears white.

Who is the discoverer of x-rays?

X-rays were discovered in 1895 by a German scientist, William Konrad Röntgen, when he carried out one of the experiments, a physicist.

The scientist William Konrad Röntgen was born on 27 March 1845 in the state of Westphalia, which is located north of the Rhine.

The famous German scientist died on February 2, 1923 after suffering from cancer due to exposure to a lot of radiation during his tests and experiments in the field of X-rays.

Why is it called X-ray?

They are called X-rays, or as physicists call them because they are unknown rays, and the meaning of the letter X is the unknown.

Types of X-rays

X-rays are divided into two types:

soft x-ray

It lies in the electromagnetic spectrum between gamma rays and ultraviolet rays, and has a short wavelength of about 10 nanometers.

hard x-ray

It has a long wavelength of about 100 picometers.

What are the properties of x-rays?

  • X-rays are not visible.
  • X-rays are not affected by electric and magnetic fields.
  • X-rays work by the same mechanism as visible light, they turn the light to black.
  • It moves in straight lines in a vacuum at the speed of light.
  • X-rays cause biological and chemical damage to living tissue.
  • X-rays can probe into structures much smaller than we can see with an ordinary microscope.
  • X-rays have a very short wavelength and are much shorter than visible light.

X-ray uses

X-ray uses

X-ray technology is used for many purposes such as helping health care providers evaluate symptoms and diagnose injuries. Some of the most common reasons for using X-rays are:

  • Define fractures.
  • Identification of infections in the bones and teeth.
  • Diagnose cavities and evaluate structures in the mouth and jaw.
  • Detection of bone tumors.
  • Bone density measurement (the amount of minerals in the bones) to diagnose osteoporosis (bone disease caused by the loss of bone material).
  • Find evidence of pneumonia, tuberculosis or lung cancer.
  • Examination of breast tissue using a mammogram technique.
  • Look for signs of heart failure or changes in blood flow to the lungs and heart.
  • Detection of digestive problems such as stones.
  • The use of a contrast medium called barium helps to detect ingested objects such as a coin or small toy.

Therapeutic uses of x-rays

We can use X-rays for therapeutic purposes such as:

1. Treatment of hyperthyroidism.

2. The treatment of the cancer cell by killing it or slowing its growth by destroying the DNA of these cells, so the cancer cell dies and the body gets rid of it and can therefore get rid of the cancer as a whole after completing the treatment .

3. We can use x-rays in cancer of the head, neck, cervix, eye, breast and prostate.

How do we prepare a patient for x-rays?

The patient’s preparation for X-rays varies depending on the target area of ​​the body. The patient may be asked to wear loose, comfortable clothing for ease of movement, or the patient may wear special hospital clothing and jewelry or metal items from the patient’s body.

It is important that the patient informs the medical staff about the presence of any medical implants in his body because the medical implants prevent X-rays from passing through the body and creating a clear image.

Depending on the area we want to examine with the X-ray, the patient may be asked to take a contrast material or “contrast dye” before the X-ray. This article is to improve image resolution. The contrast material contains barium or iodine compounds. We can take contrast dye in several ways:

  • Through the liquid swallowed or ingested by the patient.
  • injection into the body.
  • Give the patient an enema before the test.

In the case of the examination of the digestive system, the doctor may order fasting before the examination, and in some cases the patient may be asked to take medicine to clean (clean or empty) the intestines.

X-ray hazards

X-rays use a small amount of radiation to create images of the human body. Radiation exposure is safe for most adults. If a patient takes contrast material before being exposed to an X-ray, it can lead to a number of side effects, including:

  • goosebumps
  • itchy skin
  • nausea
  • vertigo
  • Metallic taste in the mouth
  • There are some cases in which the dye can cause a strong reaction, such as anaphylactic shock

Uses of X-rays in Industry

  • The use of x-rays in manufacturing is very wide, with many industries using them because of the ease of use, reliability and increased productivity that come with them.
  • For an automotive manufacturer looking to simplify the inspection of their complex assemblies, an x-ray inspection system provides a reliable and simple way to check for many problems during manufacturing.
  • The ability to ensure quality compliance of PCB-mounted integrated circuits, even when layered, is another advantage of the X-ray inspection system.
  • The electronics industry ensures that circuit boards and chip quality have efficient production with just a simple X-ray scan.
  • The X-ray inspection system effectively detects impurities in the internal contents during battery manufacturing.
  • X-ray examinations also consider battery cell quality, battery seal, alignment of nodal points, density and shape.
  • An X-ray inspection system is a better guarantee of high quality products than most inspection methods for many industries.

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