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At the beginning of the sixteenth century AD, Ismail intensified Safavi I’s aid and extended his control over Iran, so that he challenged the Ghazi Othman dynasty, which established a sultanate for itself in Istanbul. The Safavids adopted – and encouraged and developed – the Islamic groups opposed to the legitimacy of the Sultan, especially those known as Shiites.

The Ottomans built their legitimacy on the fourth caliph Othman bin Affan, who shares many of his legends with Saint Simeon Al-Amoudi, the owner of the widespread sect in the Levant and southern Anatolia. Linguistically, the names Othman and Semaan are identical, according to the principle of heart and substitution, and the name Semaan or Ismail fits it. Most of the dynasties that ruled the Levant and North Africa had previously based their legitimacy on Uthman, like the Umayyads, or on Ismail (Ibn Fatima), like the Fatimid Ismailis.

The Safavid is a pre-Islamic mystical method that sanctifies the goddess of wisdom Safaa, Sophia according to the Greeks, and she is the first creature in the world. He dies every night, then is born on a new day and a new life. Later, the ancients combined Safaa with the war goddess Zahra, symbolized by the planet that bears her name, and which draws a five-pointed star in the sky as it completes a full revolution.

At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the two Sufi movements – the Iranian Safavid and the Turkish Ottoman – began to fight over the leadership of the Islamic world. And because the Turks adopted the Umayyads, the Fatimids and the doctrines of the Mamluks, the Safavids built their doctrines on Shia doctrines, especially the Twelver and the Hajjti, who await the return of the Mahdi, and the Safavid ruler himself appointed as the representative of the awaited imam until his return from his absence.

The Safavids continued to finance and nurture the spread of their Shiite version among the Persians and the Arabs, and Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi, who died in 1699, contributed to the introduction of a large body of myths that Arab Shiites rejected to this day. , some of which are failed prophecies, such as that the Mahdi will return with the conquest of Constantinople (and this happened in 1453). Along with the Persians, Husayn’s wife, al-Rubab, daughter of Imru al-Qays, became the daughter of the last Persian Sasanian king in Baghdad, Yazdgerd III, and Husayn, the third Shiite imam, became a Persian prince. The Arab Shia scholars repeatedly tried to purify their teachings from the Persian heresy, for example, Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin, a Lebanese resident of Damascus, made an attempt to purify the Ashura narration from myths, and the prohibition on clap .

But the Arab Shiites failed to stem the Persian hurricane which swept their sect away, and the most prominent features of this invasion were the visits to the shrines, the number of which doubled, and continues to increase to this day. From Baalbek, East Lebanon. Because these shrines generate abundant profits for those who run them, the Lebanese Shiite “Amal Movement” has taken control of this shrine, which is located a few kilometers from the shrine of Hussein’s other daughter, Khawla, whose shrine by “Hezbollah” is managed. ” near the Roman ruins of Baalbek.

East of the two shrines is the “Ras Al-Hussein Mosque”, controlled by the Shiites of Baalbek with the power of “Hezbollah”, although its ownership belongs to the Dar al-Ifta of the Sunni sect in Lebanon, and it stood since the time of the Mamluks. The Shia tradition holds that after the Battle of Karbala in 680 AD, the Umayyad army carried the head of Hussein and with him the prisoners, and marched along the Euphrates in the north, then turned east and south, and passed Baalbek on his way to Caliph Yazid in Damascus. In Baalbek, the Umayyads deceived the inhabitants that they were carrying the heads of Kharijites, but Zainab, the sister of Hussein, told the inhabitants that they were the heads of the sons of the Prophet’s house. The Baalbeks rebelled, but they did not manage to extract the heads, so they built a mosque on the site where the Umayyads placed the head. The source of this narration is Ibn Shahr Ashub, who died in Aleppo in 1192 AD, i.e. 500 years after the incident.

However, this narrative has many weaknesses, the first of which is that the inhabitants of Baalbek had not yet converted to Islam in 680, i.e. less than 50 years after the “Islamic conquests”. The second problem is that those who visited Baalbek around 1200 AD and wrote down a list of religious shrines there did not encounter the Ras al-Hussein Mosque, nor the tombs of his two daughters, Khawla and Safiya. Most of what Abu al-Hasan al-Harawi saw in Baalbek, and wrote down in his book “References to Knowledge of Visits”, is that at its door to the north is the tomb of Malik al-Ashtar, and in it is the tomb of Hafsa, the wife of the prophet, and in its vicinity is the monastery of Elias the prophet, and it is likely that this place is known today as the village of the prophet Ella.

However, another book from the same time can carry the story of “The Mosque of Ras al-Hussein”, which is the book “The History of al-Adhaimi” by his companion Muhammad al-Tanoukhi al-Halabi, who died. in 1160 AD, who wrote that in the year 1043 “He appeared in Baalbek in a stone carved with the head of Yahya ibn Zakaria.” He, peace be upon him, was transferred to Homs and then to Aleppo, where he was buried.

This suggests that the legend of “Ras al-Hussein Mosque” originally dates to John the Baptist, who, after being beheaded, spoke in a miracle that some Shiites attribute to the head of al-Husayn in the presence of Yazid. This legend is repeated around the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, where the tomb of the Baptist and the corner where Hussein’s head is placed. There are several shrines that claim that the head of the Baptist, later Hussein, rested or was buried there, including in Fatimid Cairo.

The Baptist Temple – Ras Al-Hussein Mosque – is located in Baalbek on the banks of the Ras Al-Ain spring, confirming that it belongs to a sect of Baptists whose teachings are based on washing in running water and baptism. The head of the eye, or the eye at the top of the pyramid, is the Creator who watches over His creation, and He who gives life in the form of a water fountain.

As in Baalbek, Al-Harawi, during his visit to Damascus and its countryside, did not see a place for Zainab, but instead said that in the village of Rawiya there is a grave for Umm Kulthum, the daughter of the Prophet. Rawya is an attribute of the purity of the goddess of life-giving wisdom, and the act of giving life is symbolized by giving water or rain, that is, irrigation. Rawya became the Virgin Mary, and today she is Zainab and Safia. At the beginning of the spread of the Safavid da’wa in the Arab countries, one of them declared Rawiya as the place of the shrine of Zainab bint Ali, the sister of Hussain, although the oldest narrations place her grave in Al-Baqi’ considered close. Medina.

The process of announcing the shrines and scenes (ie when a believer in his sleep or consciousness sees a prophet or saint) is in full swing, the latest of which is the emergence of the site of Safiya and Sakina, in Daraya, on the countryside is from Damascus, exactly like the legend of Fatima infallible in Qom, which is probably a place of worship that has existed since ancient times, goes back to the Persian gods, and was transferred to Fatima, the sister of the Shiite imam Ali al- Rida.

It is a myth whose industry is profitable, financially through religious tourism, and politically by basing the ruler’s legitimacy on religion, an industry Iran mastered five centuries ago, and continues to excel at today.

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