The arts and crafts style first appeared in Great Britain in the first half of the nineteenth century, when it reached America at the beginning of the twentieth century and arose as a reaction to industrial styles and as a revolution over luxury and exaggeration in design details of the Victorian era without a need or functional need, therefore her houses adopted designs With handmade and easy-to-use materials, and instead of cold, soulless mass production, she focused on individual craftsmanship and summed up her basic idea that good design and good taste can prevail when quality replaces quantity.
The term “arts and crafts” refers to a broader architectural and social movement that includes not only architecture, but hand designs in general, materials, textiles, fine arts, and other cold, their rejection of mass-produced goods and inferior materials of artistic value, and their particular bias towards traditional artisan products.
In contrast to typical British Victorian architecture, which focused on extravagant architecture and ornate detail, the Arts and Crafts movement celebrated the beauty of the natural world and promised a return to a world of simplicity or a pre-industrial world . Interior decoration, furniture and landscaping.
This type of design takes into account the efficient and economical use of space, so that it is well and thoughtfully planned so that it does not require much maintenance in the future. Houses built on the basis of arts and crafts traditions are known for their functional floor plans that make their rooms making it suitable for various designs, decoration styles and different uses. In the first place, the function is considered as a basis in the formation of the form, since the interior spaces of the designs of arts and crafts houses are characterized by open spaces, and many windows of large sizes to facilitate the access of natural light and openness to the external natural elements by bringing them inside.
In contrast to the well-defined spaces and box rooms of Victorian houses, Arts and Crafts houses used open floor plans, emphasizing a functional design that not only allowed owners to move around easily, but also contributed to their well-lit and well-lit rooms. to keep climate. control.
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The facade of an “Arts and Crafts” house can be symmetrical or asymmetrical, and usually has low-gabled roofs to conserve heat and increase the feeling of warmth and comfort, but it is rare to find an Arts and Crafts house to be found without a front porch It has a well-defined roof and rests on prominent buttresses, and may be limited to the front door area or sometimes wrap around the house in some way.
Internally, the attempt to evoke the external atmosphere continues through handmade stone and wood, with basic architectural features such as built-in furniture, such as built-in bookshelves, window seats and cabinets, in addition to the exposed wooden beams, which we see on the roof or inside the house alike .
The first floor usually contains an open living room, often in the middle of one of its walls, a large fireplace that acts as a focal point in the room, and it is also possible that there is another fireplace in the main bedroom , if there is a second floor, and the living area is connected to a dining area or a multiple space with a small kitchen at the back of the house.
In an attempt to reject the design periods that came before them and a desire to imitate the houses of past centuries, the movement encouraged the use of local materials, so that the oldest houses were built with building materials associated with the natural world such as wood, plaster, stone and rustic bricks, which are spread throughout, in addition to the distinctive and carefully designed crafts. Like wrought metalwork and the use of real copper and bronze, an “arts and crafts” home often feels well-made and well-planned.
As for the colors, her palette was mainly derived from the main colors, red, blue and yellow, and their medium colors such as dark crimson in leather, eggplant and others, in addition to gray and olive green, and varied between earthy and neutral or bright and vibrant .
Various types of architecture
Houses designed in the style of arts and crafts are one of the most complex styles of architecture, so their old models did not follow a single style, but instead adopted an approach that varied between various types of architecture, as the root of many common design styles dates back to the Arts and Crafts movement, such as the Craftsman style With wide, open floor plans, low gabled roofs, front porches and exposed beams, Bungalows or bungalows are designed to be easy to build and affordable for working families in the early 20th century. With small balconies and overhanging eaves, it made efficient use of its small interior space by using narrow cabinets, built-in cabinets and shelves, as well as styles such as American Foursquare, Prairie School, Tudor, and others.